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Property II
Villanova University School of Law
Sirico, Louis J.

Table of Contents
 
Landlord-Tenant: The Right of Exclusive Physical Possession……………………………………………….3
            – Identify Type of Lease
            – Delivery of Actual Possession at Beginning of Lease Term
            – Interference with Physical Possession During Lease Term
                        – Actual Total Eviction…………………………………………………………………………….4
                        – Actual Partial Eviction
                        – Constructive Eviction
 
Implied Landlord Duties & Implied Conditions to Tenant’s Obligations……………………………………5
            – Warranty of Habitability
            – Other Landlord Duties That May Be Implied
            – Tenant Remedies In Case of Breach
 
Landlord Tort Liability………………………………………………………………………………………….7
            – Duties That Landlord Is Liable For
 
Subleases and Assignments………………………………………………………………………………………8
            – Deciding if Sublease or Assignment
            – Deciding if Privity of Estate or Privaty of Contract
            – When is Landlord Consent Required and What Kind of Consent?
 
Present and Future Interests…………………………………………………………………………………….9
            – Present Possessory Interests (Table)
            – Future Possessory Interests……………………………………………………………………………10
                        – Reversion
                        – Possibility of Reverter
                        – Right of Entry
                        – Remainder
                        – Executory Interests (Table)……………………………………………………………………..11
 
Rule Against Perpetuities………………………………………………………………………………………14
 
Easements……………………………………………………………………………………………………….15
            – Express Easements
                        – Types of Easements
                        – Creation
                        – Interpretation and Extent of Express Easements……………………………………………….16
                        – Succession of Easements
                                    – Succession of Appurtenant Easements………………………………………………….17
                                    – Succession of In Gross Easements
                        – Terminating Express Easements………………………………………………………………..18
            – Non-Express Easements………………………………………………………………………………..19
                        – Factors to Consider if Easement Should Be Implied
                        – Implied Easements from Prior Use
                        – Easements Implied from Necessity
                        – Losing Easements………………………………………………………………………………20
                        – Planned Communities
 
Covenants……………………………………………………………………………………………………….21
            – Creation and Validity
            – Enforcement and Running of Covenants
                        – Intent
                        – Notice
                        – Touch and Concern
                        – Vertical Privity………………………………………………………………………………….22
                        – Horizontal Privity
                        – Traditional View Summary Chart………………………………………………………………23
            – Termination of Covenants and Servitudes………………………………………………………………24
 
Common Interest Communities………………………………………………………………………………..25
 
Recording Statutes………………………………………………………………………………………………27
            – Types of Statutes
            – Types of Indexes………………………………………………………………………………………..28
            – Who Can Lose/Gain Title by Virtue of Recording Statute?
 
Nuisance…………………………………………………………………………………………………………30
 
Public Use………………………………………………………………………………………………………..31
 
The Power to Regulate Land Use: Regulatory Takings………………………………………………………32
            – Physical Takings
            – Regulatory Takings
            – Developmental Exactions………………………………………………………………………………33
LANDLORD-TENANT: THE RIGHT OF EXCLUSIVE PHYSICAL POSSESSION
 
A. Identify the type of Lease
-You know it is a lease when there is exclusive possession with accompanying rights such as to sue for trespass or nuisance
            -As opposed to an easement which is not exclusive
-Tenancy for Years- fixed period (like a typical 1-year lease)
            Creation: To A for 2 years
            Termination: Automatic, without notice needed
-Periodic Tenancy – period to period until notice of termination (like mine)
            Creation: To A from moneth to month or rent payable first of every month
            Termination: One party must give notice equal to one time period
-Tenancy at will – no stated duration – continues until one party wants to end it
            Creation: To T as long as LL permits or to T for as long as T desires
            Termination: Either party can bring it to an end, or death
-Holdover tenancy – remaining in property at the end of a tenancy
            Creation: Staying at the end of the lease
            Termination: When LL evicts you
 
B. Delivery of Actual Possession at Beginning of Lease Term
-LL must deliver legal right of possession but jurisdictions are split as to whether or not LL has to deliver actual physical possession
            1. Majority think it’s LL’s problem to fix in a “reasonable time”
                        -Tenant can
                                    a) terminate the lease
                                    b) remain in the lease but withhold rent
                                                -If only a portion of premises is interfered with, T can only withhold a                                                        proportional amount of rent
                                    c) T can waive this
                                    d) T is entitled to damages for finding substitute housing
            2. If there is a trespasser, minority of jurisdictions think its the T’s problem
                        -This is stupid because 1) the trespasser could be the LL or 2) the LL is in a better position and                             more likely to be able to deal with trespasser (old T)
                        -Tenant can
                                    a) T has all remedies LL would have if not for lease
                                                -Sometimes, although it does not make sense, these jurisdictions give LL these                                                       remedies as well (how can 2 people have exclusive rights)
                                    b) T can modify agreement
            -Everyone agrees tenant does not have to move in immediately
 
C. Interference with Physical Possession During Lease Term
A. LL is bound to give T legal right of possession
            -LL would be in breach if
            a) 3rd party with paramount title than LL were to come
                        -T only has a claim if party with paramount title were to interfere with T’s possession
                        -T can waive this if LL told him + T consents but if T does not know there’s no consent
            b) LL took right of possession back from T
            c) A trespasser is T’s problem generally
B. Quiet Enjoyment
            -If not expressly provided for, it is implied
        

s to this were latent defects, buildings under construction, and short term leases                                     of a furnished house
            -Generally only for “vital thing” such as heat, water, safety, broken steps, etc.
                        -Not for specific things e.g. heat in back storage room
                        -LL must fix vital things that break from wear and tear but not T behavior Marini
                        -Not a breach for minor code violation Wade
                                    -Code violation is not needed or sufficient
                        -Bare Minimum for living Wade
            -Under Housing Codes
                        -Some courts say housing codes set the standard – in application this is a stronger argument if the                         breach of the code is major or it’s a vital code
            -Waiver
                        -T can waive minor defects but it’s against public policy to allow waiver of major stuff
                        -Does it apply if T knew about conditions when moving in, or what about if they lived in it for a             long time without complaining – YES
            -If a lease is entered into but the premises is not habitable the lease is void and its tenancy at         sufferance            
            -Generally just for residential but has extended somewhat into small commercial Davidow
           
B. Other LL Duties That May be Implied
            -LL can imply any other warranty he wants in the lease agreement and is then bound to it
            -Some things are presumed to be implied
                        1. Provide the tenant with the legal right to possession
                        2. Not to interfere with physical possession
                        3. In most jurisdiction, to make possession actually available to tenant
                        4. Courts agree a landlord must comply with express covenants in the lease
                        5. A landlord may have to perform acts they did not expressly promise
-Common Law Duties
            -To Repair
                                    -Usually the tenant changes light bulbs because its more cost efficient than the landlord
                                    -But the landlord probably does not want the tenant making major repairs
C. Tenant remedies in Case of Breach
            1. Terminate and leave
                        -Usually you can get damages of vacating and recovery
                        -Only if its like an eviction or a breach of habitability Wade
            2. Stay and Withhold Rent Knight
                        -Must notify LL this is whats happening so LL can repair and get rent again
                        -May have to put money in an escrow pending judgment to avoid a ditch and run