1) Bundle of Property Rights:
d) Use / Develop
a) Nuisance- a non-trespassing invasion into another’s interest in the use and enjoyment of their property; a private land use control that D has on neighbors.
i) Δs activity substantially interfere with the Пs ability to enjoy the use of his land
(1) Interferes w/ use, develop, enjoy, possession (particulate matter)
ii) Nuisance Law – CL’s attempt at solving problem of externalities – unconsented spillover (positive or negative)
b) Guiding Principle: One should use his property in such a way not to injure the property of another.
i) D/n include aesthetics
(1) Sound- air conditioner and apartment
(2) Smog, dust, vibration- Boomer v. Atlantic Cement
(3) Smell- Spur Industries v. Del E. Webb Development
c) Policy= efficiency and fairness
d) Public Nuisance- interference of a public right, can bring suit leaving special injury
e) Private Nuisance- sole landowner and person infringing upon his use
f) Windfalls and Wipeouts
i) Boomer v. Atlantic Cement
(1) Boomer- Wipeout- negative spillover effects- burdened party absorbs the negative impact of externalities
(a) Court found there was nuisance, but they awarded permanent damages instead of an injunction.
(2) Atlantic- Marginal windfall- property benefits from what the neighbors are doing (positive spillover effect)
g) Balancing Test (Degree of harm (injury to П) v. Social utility of Δ activities)
i) “Balance the Equities”
(1) Benefits Generated v. Harm Incured
ii) Social Utility/Benefit far outweighs the harm/injury to П- no nuisance
iii) Traditional View- Use balancing to find substantive issue and if you find nuisance then use injunctive relief for remedial.
(1) Injunctive relief is the only remedy- equitable
iv) Modern View- use balancing on remedial issue.
(1) First determine if Nuisance
(a) Contemporary Community Standards Test- minority- uses local standard to determine if there is a nuisance
(b) Majority- “know it when see it”; no objective criteria
(2) If yes, then decide what remedy: Use balancing to decide if injunction proper
(a) Legal Remedy- damages
(b) Equitable Remedy- Injunction
v) 4 Possible Remedies
(2) Damages/permanent but no injunction (Boomer)
(3) Compensatory- Injunction w/o compensation but had to buy him out (Spur)
(4) No nuisance
h) What are the major
mon law of nuisance developed an objective standard that can decide regulatory taking cases.” (Hopperton thinks economic conservative approach is horseshit)
a) Profit- Non-possessory right that entitles the person to take something from someone else’s land (such as wood, mineral, gravel, coal, etc.)
i) Doctrine of Waste still applies to future interest
ii) Created the same way as an easement
b) License- Revocable permission to use someone else’s land in a way that would otherwise be considered trespass (ie: a ticket to a sporting is a revocable license)
i) GAV- the courts recognize the possibility of a irrevocable license that would become an easement upon the expenditure of money, labor, etc (reliance = equitable estoppel)
ii) Minority- d/n recognize irrevocable license.
iii) Irrevocable License- When an licensee expends a large sum of money to utilize a license then that license can become irrevocable due to the doctrine of estoppel. It goes away once the license is no longer needed.