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Immigration Law
University of Toledo School of Law
Steinbock, Daniel J.

IMMIGRATION and REFUGEE LAW
 
I.                  Immigrant Categories
A.      Quotas and Preferences
1.        General foundations
2.       Immigrants exempt from quotas
3.       Immigrants subject to quotas
4.       4 family preferences
5.       5 employment preferences
B.       Family-Based
1.        Basics
2.       Spouses
a.       Same sex partnerships
b.       Fraudulent marriages
3.       Other family members
C.       Employment-Based
1.        Preferences
2.       Labor certification
a.       Displacing American workers
b.       Adversely affecting the wages and working conditions of American workers
c.       Routes
1)       Traditional
2)      Reduction in recruitment
d.       Employment-based Visa
D.      Diversity
II.              Immigration and the Constitution
A.      Sources
1.        Enumerated
2.       Implied
B.       Limits
1. Procedural due process
III.           Non-Immigrant Categories
A.      General info
B.       Commercial categories
1.        Temporary
a.       Specialty Occupations, Athletes and Entertainers: H-1Bs, Os and Ps
b.       Lesser Skills and Labor Shortages: H-2s
c.       Trainees: H-3s
d.       Miscellaneous other temporary workers
2.       Intra-company transferees: Ls
C.       Educational categories
1.        Students: F1s
2.       Exchanges: J1s
D.      Tourists
1.        Business: B1s
2.       Pleasure: B2s
E.       Fiances and fiancees: K1s
F.       Other categories: Ts, Us, Vs
G.      Change of non-immigrant status
 
IV.             Exclusion Grounds and Waivers
A.      General info
B.       Grounds related to immigration control
1.        Integrity of documents
2.       Surreptitious entry
3.       Out of status
4.       No show provision
5.       Aggregate
6.       Waivers
C.       Political and national security grounds
D.      Criminal grounds
E.       Economic grounds
F.       Public health and morals grounds
V.                 Admission Procedures
A.      Visa petitions
B.       Visa applications
C.       Actual admission
1.        At the border
2.       Hearing before Immigration judge
D.      Expedited removal
E.       Adjustment of status
VI.             Deportability Grounds
A.      Meaning and Significance of “Entry” and “Admission”
B.       Crime-related deportability grounds
1.        General
2.       Withdrawal of guilty pleas
3.       Crimes of moral turpitude
4.       Aggravated felonies
VII.          Relief from Deportability
A.      Types of relief
B.       Lasting relief
1.        Cancellation of removal
a.       Extreme hardship to family
b.       Continuous physical presence for 10 years
c.       Good moral character
2.       NACARA
3.       Registry
4.       Legalization
VIII.      Removal Procedures
A.      Overview
1.        Apprehension
2.       Before the hearing
3.       Removal hearing
4.       Administrative review
5.       Judicial review
6.       Execution of the order
B.       Representation
1.        General
2.       Legal aid
3.       Pro bono
4.       Equal Access to Justice Act
C.       Evidence and Proof
1.        Admissibility of evidence
2.       Other illegally obtained statements
3.       Burden of proof and sufficiency of evidence
IX.             Refugee and Asylum
A.      Overview
B.       Procedures for off-shores refugees
C.       Asylum and nonrefoulment
1.        General
2.       Persecution and fear of persecution
a.       Persecution v. Prosecution
b.       Coercive population controls as persecution
3.       “On Account of Race, Religion, Nationality, Membership in a Particular Social Group, or Political Opinion”
a.       Political opinion
1)       Guerrillas
2)      Imputed
3)      Neutrality
b.       Particular social group
1)       Sexual orientation
2)      Gender
4.       Standards of proof
5.       Methods of proof
a.       Material facts
1)       Membership in a persecuted group
2)      Past persecution
b.       Relevant evidence
1)       Applicant’s own testimony
6.       Exceptions to eligibility
a.       Firm resettlement
b.       Felony conviction
c.       Security threat
d.       Persecution of others
7.       Discretion in asylum cases
8.       Procedural problems
D.      Beyond persecution: protection from other dangers
1.        Convention against torture
2.       “Temporary protected status”
X.                 Post-September 11th Policy Changes
 
 
 
Immigrant Categories
 
The Fundamentals: Quotas and Preferences
In General
Subjective intent: Presumption of immigration; burden on alien to show that she won’t stay
No judicial review of consular decisions, e.g., denial of visa
Two aspects to immigration visa
Quantitative: Quotas – INA § 202
Qualitative: Reasons why person can be denied – INA § 212
Waivers available if certain relatives in U.S. and hardship demonstrated to those relatives; high burden
Essential terms:
Petitioner: U.S. citizen
Beneficiary: Individual seeking resident status or visa
Chargeability: Country of birth
Derivative status: derivative is a dependent of beneficiary
Immediate relatives do not have derivatives
 
Quantitative
Non-quota: immediate relative (parent, spouse, child)
Quota: limit as per Visa Bulletin
Worldwide cap
Per-country cap
Preference category within these caps
 
Immigrants Exempt from the General Quotas
Immediate relatives
Spouses, parents and children of USC, except USC son or daughter must be at least 21. INA § 201(b)(2)(A)(i)
“Child” = unmarried and under 21. INA § 101(b)(1)
LPRs returning from temporary visits abroad. INA § 101(a)(27)(A), 201(b)(1)(A)
Either exempt at time of original admission or already counted once before
Certain former US citizens. INA § 101(a)(27)(B)
Children born to LPRs temporarily abroad. INA § 201(b)(2)(B)
Persons who receive certain permanent forms of discretionary relief from removal. INA § 201(b)(2)(B)
People fleeing persecution. INA § 201(b)(1)(B)
Parolees as per discretion of AG. INA § 212(d)(5)
Grant of parole is not considered an admission
Special groups ad hoc on a nonquota basis, as determined by Congress. INA § 201(b)(1)(C)
Issuance of limited number of additional immigrant visas on a one-shot basis to nationals of underrepresented countries
Congress has also occasionally awarded LPR status on a nonquota basis to groups of people who arrive from selected countries as part of an unusual migration; one-time-only statutes
Temporary legislation enacted to allow certain nurses already working in US on nonimmigrant visas to adjust to LPR without regard to usual numerical caps
 
Immigrants Subject to the General Quotas
Programs and Ceilings
Family-sponsored immigrants
Generally immigrants who have certain family members in the US
Qualifying categories listed in INA § 203(a)
Formula: 480,000 minus # of immediate relatives admitted in preceding year, plus any employment-based visas available but not used preceding year. Ceiling must always be at least 226,000 (so this is really the floor). INA § 201(c)
Formula result of Immigration Act of 1990
N

nths after the issuance or the principal immigrant’s visa (or adjustment of status)
No analogous time limit on a spouse or child “following to join”
No comparable provision for spouse or child accompanying or following to join an immediate rel
 
Selecting Individual Applicants
When demand for visas for particular preference category exceeds the statutory ceiling, the applicants who applied first get the available visas
Clock starts when applicant files the first relevant document
Priority date = filing date/date received
Immigrants advance until priority dates become “current” as per Visa Bulletin
Complication of the per-country limit
Proration in every year in which the per-country limit is reached. INA § 202(e)
If in a particular year the world wide family ceiling is twice as great as worldwide employment ceiling, then within a particular oversubscribed country family-sponsored applicants will receive twice as many visas as employment-based applicants
Within the family program, the visas for an oversubscribed country are allocated among the four preference categories in same proportion that apply worldwide for that year
When proration is used, adjustment are made to account for the fact that most of the 2As are exempt from per-country limitations
Problem of aging out: Bill signed 4th week of August 2002 to preserve priority date for those who “age-out” –turn 21 while waiting. SEE HANDOUT.
Very complicated law; uncertain how it will be interpreted
Exam tip: identify question of aging out
If petitioner dies, lose priority date and the petition dies: automatic revocation
Marriage can be automatic revocation
 
Family-Based Immigration
The Basics
§         US immigration law has long promoted family unity
§         Permanent provisions of INA aid reunification of temporarily divided family
201(b)(2): exempts from quotas immediate relatives and children born to LPRs temporarily abroad
203(a): special preferences on certain immigrants with slightly less compelling family relationships to USC or LPRs
203(d): preference to spouses and children accompanying or following to join most (but not all) classes of immigrants
Visa Office Bulletin shows long delays, which creates hardship of lengthy separation and aging-out
Congress’ liberalization of the 2A category for unmarried sons ad daughters of LPRs was one important response to hardship problem
Legal Immigration Family Equity Act (LIFE) enacted in 2000 created V-Visas
Beneficiaries of 2A visa petitions that were filed on or before December 21, 2000 may enter the US as nonimmigrants once waiting times exceed three years
At such time, may also work. INA § 214(o)(1)(A).
If permanent application ultimately denied, V-status terminates 30 days later
Otherwise, V-status continues until LPR status is attained