Criminal Procedure – Investigations
a. STAGES OF CRIMINAL PROCESS: (plea bargaining at any stage; lesser charge or sentence reduction)
i. Report of Crime:
1. Exception: Proactive operations
2. May be investigation at this stage; finding & talking to Witness
ii. Arrest: taking of individual into custody for purposes of charging with crime
1. with individual now can ? arrestee, photographed, in line up
iii. Booking: Administrative procedure; record is made of arrest, fingerprints, photos, & if serious, will be held.
iv. Decision to Charge Individual with Crime:
1. Whether to charge at all; always constant evaluation of case
2. What to Charge person with; where elements of crime come in; misdemeanors/felonies
v. Complaint: Decision to charge; called charging instrument
vi. Arraignment on Complaint (Also called First Appearance):
1. Takes place in lowest criminal court in system
2. Gets copy of complaint
3. Told of rights; read rights
4. Inquiry about Representation
5. Condition of Release
6. Review of sufficiency of Complaint; does complaint state crime?
vii. Review of Sufficiency of Evidence:
1. Review done by Preliminary Hearing: hearing in open court in which prosecution presents evidence to judge who will determine if is PC to believe that crime was committed by accused. Charging instrument = Information if out of Preliminary Hearing.
a. Witness can be called
b. D present
c. Defense counsel present; can cross
d. D can testify & present evidence (rare)
e. If PC is present, case is “bound over” for trial.
2. Review also done by Grand Jury: in many juris, unless waive right, can’t be prosecuted witho GJ reviewing case.
a. Grand Jury: Body of citizens called up through same process as regular juries.
i. Ohio: 15 people; federal 16-23.
ii. Decide after hearing evidence if proceed.
iii. Difference is ex parte hearing: 1 sided, D & lawyer not present; only hear prosecutors case.
1. If charge with crime ®Indictment.
2. If not charge ®No Bill.
3. Filed in TC of GJ (CP in Ohio) (FDC in Federal)
viii. Arraignment on Indictment or Information in that Court:
ii. Warrant Clause: search with warrant issued by magistrate/judge that describes place to be searched & person/things to be seized.
1. Applied for by affidavit facts that establish PC. Ex parte (1 sided). Usually search warrant with proposed affidavit.
2. Can appeal motion to suppress if can’t go on witho evidence suppressed.
b. PROBABLE CAUSE: search, instrumentalities, or fruit of crime.
i. Aguilar/Spinelli 2 Prong Test:
1. Have to prove veracity of informant &
a. Show informant is credible or
i. From track record, upstanding member of community
b. Show info is reliable
i. Corroboration of some of evidence tends to make it more likely other info is true
ii. Details are typical of whatever doing
Show there is basis of knowledge