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Constitutional Law I
University of Toledo School of Law
Closius, Phillip J.

A.) General
1.) Year: 1787
2.) Articles: 7
3.) Amendments: 27

B.) History
1.) Pastà “defense” was the 1st priority; “economy” was 2nd
2.) 2003à “interstate commerce” is 1st priority (since FDR in 1937)

C.) Delegation of Powers
1.) federalà
a.) “limited government”
1.) only has powers delegated by the Constitution               
2.) statesà
a.) “residual” and “reserved” powers
1.) any power not given to the federal government in the                                                           Constitution is reserved for the states
a.) 10th Amendment
b.) Art. IV, § 2
1.) one state can’t discriminate against those from other                                                             states
2.) states can’t create different laws for citizens and non-                                                          citizens

D.) Separation of Powers
1.) LegislatureàArt. I, §§ 7-8 (makes laws)
a.) Powers: Art. I, § 8
1.) makes laws and consider amendments
2.) borrow and coin $
3.) regulate commerce w/ foreign nations and among the
several states (i.e. “Commerce Clause”)
a.) interstate commerce
4.) establish P.O.
5.) constitute inferior tribunals
6.) raise and support armies
7.) provide and maintain a navy
b.) Necessary and Proper ClauseàArt. I, § 8 last ¶
1.) gives the federal government a broader scope of power
a.) “to make all laws which shall be ‘necessary and proper’ for carrying into execution of foregoing powers”
c.) Passing a Bill
1.) pass by a simple majority (>51%)
2.) can pass from House to Senate or vice versa
3.) both houses of Congress must pass the bill
a.) BicameralismàArt. I, § 7
b.) PresentmentàArt. I, § 7
1.) after Congress passes bill, they must
present it to the President (signature)
d.) Repeal
1.) only Congress can repeal a law or act      
e.) Other
1.) Congress can create lower courts – Art. III, § 1
2.) Congress can modify the federal courts appellate
jurisdiction – Art. III, § 2
a.) Exceptions Clause – w/ such exceptions as                           Congress shall make   
3.) Congress may vest the Appointment of inferior officers
as they think proper in the President alone, in the Court,
or in the Heads of Departments – Art. II, § 2
a.) Appointment Clause – appointing inferior                           officers

2.) ExecutiveàArt. II, §§1-3 (carries out the laws)
a.) Powers: Art. II, § 2
1.) Commander in Chief
2.) form cabinet
3.) make treaties (w/ 2/3 Senate consent)
4.) foreign relations
5.) appoint Supreme Court justices, Ambassadors, and
other officers (w/ 2/3 Senate consent)
6.) grant pardons and reprieves (except for impeachment)

3.) JudiciaryàArt. III, §§1-2 (interprets the law)
a.) Powers: Art. III, § 1
1.) creation of Supreme Court
a.) justices are in for life
b.) Federal JurisdictionàArt. III, § 2
1.) lists the types of cases federal courts can hear
a.) Ex. “citizens of different states”
2.) can only hear a “case or controversy”
E.) Checks & Balances
1.) Legislature (Article I)
a.) law making power
1.) CongressàHouse & Senate
a.) Art. I, § 7 Bicameralism
1.) both Houses must pass legislation
2.) Congress can override the President’s                                                                                     veto by 2/3 vote both Houses
b.) Congress has most law making power
2.) President
a.) Art. I, § 7 Presentment
1.) President can veto
b.) President has some power in law making

3.) Court
a.) Judicial Review (Marbury v. Madison)
1.) this is not in the Constitution
2.) power to say laws are unconstitutional
b.) Court has some say in law making

2.) Executive (Article II)
a.) execution of the laws
1.) President
a.) appoints justices
b.) foreign affairs

             power to do so
1.) 10th Amendment (residual powers)
c.) Judges of every state are bound by the Constitution
2.) 11th Amendment
a.) can’t sue a state in federal court (sovereign immunity)
3.) Bill of Rights
a.) 1st 10 Amendments in 1791
b.) concerned w/ rights and privileges
c.) written to bind states as well as federal government
1.) this has been since the Warren Court (states)
4.) 5th Amendment
a.) Due Process Clause for federal system
5.) 14th Amendment
a.) Due Process Clause for state systems
6.) Art. IV, § 1 Full Faith & Credit
a.) Ex. if married in OH, it must be respected in other states
7.) Art. V Amendments
a.) this process is very difficult


A.) The Power of the Judicial Branch

1.) Limits on Adjudication: (subject matter limits)

a.) Justiciability: Political Q (court can’t hear)
1.) What is it?
a.) better left for another branch
b.) does not come from anywhere specifically in the                                                                   Constitution
c.) court does not have the authority to hear it
2.) Baker v. Carr
a.) Facts: diluted votes in TN cities; wanted federal                                                                   gov’t to change the apportionment system
b.) Factors: (things that can’t be heard by court…)

1.) textually demonstrable constitutional                                                                                     commitment of the issue to a coordinate                                                                                political dept.
2.) lack of judicially