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Civil Procedure II
University of Toledo School of Law
Pizzimenti, Lee Ann


a.      Pleading
i.      Complaint (and summons) should include:
a.       Caption – Rule 10(a) – Form 1
a.       Name of court, action, file #, designation (complaint), names of all parties
b.      Grounds for Jurisdiction – Rule 8(a) – Form 2
c.       Statement of a claim for relief (discussion of facts and the law)
d.      Damages Suffered
e.       Demand for relief
ii.      Statement of a claim for relief
a.       D responds (common law pleading)
a.       Demurrer – Rule 12(b)(6): says there is no legal claim
b.      Dilatory plea – Rule 12(b)(1), (2), & (3): says this court doesn’t have the power (wrong court)
c.       Plea in bar
i.      Traverse – facts are not true
ii.      Confession & Avoidance – “I did it, but…”
b.      Code/Fact Pleading (Gillispie v. Goodyear Service Stores)
a.       Statement of facts constituting a cause of action
i.      Don’t use legal conclusions
ii.      Cite essential ultimate facts (facts supporting elements of each cause of action)
iii.      Evidentiary facts – relevant, but not essential to the matter (need not plead)
c.       Notice Pleading – Rule 8(a)
a.       Complaint includes:
i.      Caption
ii.      Short, plain statement showing the grounds upon which jurisdiction depends
iii.      “notice pleading” – short and plain statement of the claim showing the P is entitled to relief
1.      Rule 84 – use forms
2.      Style – see rule 10(b)
a.       Numbered paragraphs
b.      Can refer to the prior paragraphs by #
c.       Do one fact at a time (don’t put long sentences with “and” connecting facts)
3.      Content:
a.       Generally: (more than legal conclusions)       
i.      Dioguardi: (criticized, but good law)
ii.      Sets rule 12(b)(6) Standard
iii.      Court makes inferences as to the P’s claim (it was poorly stated in the complaint)
iv.      If a cause of action can be inferred from the case, that is enough
v.      Short, plain statement and facts to support (unlike fact pleading, inferences are ok)
vi.      Conley:
vii.      Confirmed Dioguardi rule
viii.      Fair notice of what the P’s claim is and the grounds upon which it rests
ix.      Leatherman: affirmed Conley
x.      McHenry: Complaint dismissed because of too much information (this decision is rare)
b.      Need to get past motions:
i.      12(b)(6) – Failure to state claim
ii.      12(c) – more definite statement (clarify); ex: Lodge
iii.      12(f) – strike redundant, immaterial, impertinent, scandalous
iv.      Ex: Garcia – scandalous
c.       Burden of pleading (who must plead); Generally same as burden of production at trial. So:
i.      P has burden to plead elements of cause of action (inferred); generally don’t have responsibility to anticipate affirmative defenses
ii.      If D raises affirmative defense, P must respond. Usually in a reply; not required to plead non existence of every defense (well pleaded complaint rule)
iii.      Exceptions:
iv.      P must allege non-payment of a note if they are suing for payment of a note
v.      P must allege falseness of a statement in a slander case (truth is a defense in slander cases)
vi.      P suing for breach of contract – P must allege that all conditions precedent to a contract have occurred (Rule 9(c))
vii.      Some jurisdictions say the P must plead due care
4.      Exceptions to “notice pleading”
a.       Rule 9(b): In all averments of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake shall be stated with particularity. Malice, intent, knowledge, and other conditions of a mind of a person may be averred generally
i.      Address: who, what, when, where

                                                                                                                          viii.      12(f) motion to strike
ix.      12(c) judgment on pleadings – after all pleadings have been filed; treated like 12(b)(6).
x.      12(b)(6) & 12 (c): Any material outside the pleadings – treat like a summary judgment motion under Rule 56
c.       Responding with an answer: Rule 8(b)
a.       Admit: affirmatively admit or fail to deny; Rule 8(d); takes issue from factfinder and is conclusive at trial
b.      Deny:
i.      General – Dangers
1.      Rule 11
2.      Zielinski – Paragraph 5: owned, operated and controlled by D (they only owned… but just did a general denial instead of saying they admitted owning it, but denied operating and controlling it); Court said paragraph 5 was admitted to because they misled the P by their response (equitable estoppel)
ii.      Specific – Better (admit part, deny part)
iii.      Improper forms of denial
1.      “without knowledge” when presumptively within knowledge
a.       Ex: Biggs & Oliver (p. 559)
2.      negative pregnant
a.       Ex: complaint says – you ran over my brown cat; Answer – your cat was not brown
b.      Answer admitted that they ran over the cat
3.      Answering in alternative
a.       Ex: I deny that your cat was brown, and I deny that I ran over your cat
iv.      “Without knowledge” – Reasonable investigation necessary
1.      don’t forget Rule 11
v.      Affirmative defenses: must be set forth in answer or D loses right to raise them. Rule 8(c)
1.      Denial = no; Affirmative defense = “ yes, but…” or “no, and…”
2.      8(c) examples:
a.       “and any other matter constituting an avoidance or affirmative defense”
b.      They give 19 of the most common, but provide for some they may have forgotten
3.      Rule 9(c) examples: capacity, fraud, mistake, CP
4.      Examples form cases: Ingraham (p. 562)
5.      Other – Test: issues that are “likely to take the opposite party by surprise”
6.      “close, logical relationship to the claim” (Ingraham) 
a.       necessary or extrinsic part of the cause of action
b.      access to relevant evidence
c.       policy considerations (whether it would take the other party by surprise)
d.      Reply
a.       Rule 7(a)
i.      Pleading: complaint, answer, reply to counterclaim (CC), answer to cross claim (XC), 3P complaint, answer. No other EXCEPT court may order a reply to an answer or 3P answer.
e.       Amendments (Rule 15)
a.       Amendments: 15(a)
i.      “as of right”: