a. Personal Jurisdiction
i. Traditional Bases
a. Expressly agree by waiver or failure to raise defense.
a. Residence AND intent to stay.
a. D served w/in forum state is valid.
i. Applies to transient jurisdiction (service valid while flying in airplane over state.)
b. Cannot lure D back into state to serve.
ii. Long-Arm Statute – LA reaches as far as Due Process allows:
1. Minimum Contacts (International Shoe v. Washington) This replaced the strict Pennoyer Test
a. Purposeful availment – Deals with $
b. Foreseeable to be hailed into court in forum state.
c. Substantial connection McGee v. International Life Insurance
d. D received benefits/protections of laws of state
e. Systematic and continuous contacts
f. Stream of Commerce Theories (Asahi)
i. D must have placed product in state or done something else to est. min. contacts (ads, make product spec. for state)
ii. Placing product into stream with foreseeability that it could end up in forum state is enough.
iii. Amt. of products in commerce and regularity should be considered.
g. Unilateral activity is not enough if that’s all you have.
2. Fair Play and Substantial Justice (balance all)
a. Severity of burden on D
b. Interests of forum state
c. Interests of P in obtaining relief
d. Availability of witnesses and evidence (efficiency)
e. Social policies
1. Property not the subject-matter of the litigation, but rather used to get personal jurisdiction.
a. Must be attached at the outset of litigation.
b. Related to the cause of action
c. Located within the forum.
d. Judgment only up the value of the property attached.
e. There has to be minimum contacts of D with the state (Shaffer v. Heitner)
2. Limited Appearance (see also challenging JOPOT)
a. Allows D in quasi in rem action to appear for ltd. purpose of defending interest in attached property w/out submitting to in personam jurisdiction.
II. JOPOT in Federal Courts
c. Fed. courts generally behave in same way as state courts in the state it sits. Exceptions:
i. Service of Process – Rule 4(k)
Some fed. statutes authorize nationwide service of process.