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Wills and Trusts
University of South Carolina School of Law
Hellwig, Brant J.

Wills
1)      Intestacy
a)      Total/Partial
b)      Basic Intestacy Scheme
i)        Spouse/issue à parents/issue à grands/issue (1/2 each) à great grands/issue (1/2 each)
ii)       120 hours survival
iii)     Representation (first alive/issues take) v. Per Stirpes (first ever alive)
c)      Disclaimer (predeceased; but not for representation)
d)      Children (illegitimate–> adjudication, half-blood and adopted)
e)      Advancement
f)       Slayer Disqualification
 
2)      Execution of Wills
a)      Capacity to Make/Revoke Will à sound mind
b)      Undue Influence (clear convincing coercion)
c)      Mistake and Fraud
i)        Mistakeà Inducement, effect
ii)       Fraud à execution, inducement
d)      Execution Requirements
i)        In General (writing, signed, 2 witnesses)
ii)       Witness-Beneficiaries
(1)   Supernumerary exception
(2)   Interested Witnesses (takes to intestate or earlier will)
iii)     Choice of Law
(1)   Probated gets FFC
(2)   Executed considered valid
e)      Republication By Codicil
i)        Application: attached or writing confirms
ii)       Effect: will executed on that date.
f)       Content of Wills
i)        Amendments: req. formalities
ii)       Integration: all docs intended
iii)     Incorporation by Reference: documents must already exist + language manifesting intent + sufficient identification
iv)     2-512 Memos: must be handwritten or signed + describe tangible personal property.
v)      Acts of Independent Significance.
vi)     In Terroram Clauses: effective only if lack probable cause.
 
3)      Revocation of Wills
a)      By Operation of Law
i)        Marriage: no
ii)       Divorce: Ex considered predeceased.
b)      By Subsequent Writing: need same formalities, capacity and intent as will. Can be explicit or implicit.
c)      By Physical Act. Must touch the writing. Cannot a

ive devise w/ funding
e)      Lapse. Check date of death/any predeceased takers? If so, they lapse. If blood-relative, issue take in place. If class of takers, blood issue of deceased class member takes.
 
5)      Family Protections
a)      Spouse
i)        Elective Share – 1/3
ii)       Omitted Spouse Share – only if will, then marriage, then no edits/republications, etc… Can be omitted even if in will (if bequest not in contemplation of marriage). If omitted, take intestate share, unless contrary intent/bequest. 
b)      Children: ifbornafter will made, take intestate unless exceptions.
 
6)      Other Subjects
a)      K to Will
b)      Power of Appointment
c)      Power of Attorney
d)      Intentional Interference With Inheritance.