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Constitutional Law I
University of South Carolina School of Law
Crocker, Thomas P.

1.  Structure of Constitution
a.    Article I – Congress
i.      § 1 – All powers will be in two houses
ii.     § 2 – House of Representatives
1.    Cl. 5 – power to impeach
iii.    § 3 – Senate
1.    Cl. 6 – power to try all impeachments – requires 2/3rd of members present
iv.   § 7 – Bicameralism and Presentment
v.    § 8 – Congressional Powers
1.    Cl. 1 – Taxing and Spending Power
2.    Cl. 2 – Power to borrow money on US credit
3.    Cl. 3 – Commerce Clause
4.    Cl. 8 – Copyright Clause
5.    Cl. 9 – Creation/Regulation of Federal Judiciary (see also Ordain and Establish Clause – Art. III, Sec 1.
6.    Cl. 11 – Power to declare war, grant letters of marque, and make rules regarding captured enemy combatants
7.    Cl. 12 – Power to raise and support armies
8.    Cl. 13 – Power to provide and maintain a navy
9.    Cl. 14 – To make rules for the government and regulation of army and navy
10.  Cl. 16 – Provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the militia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the service of the United States
a.    Reserves for the States the power to appoint officiers and to train the militia according to the regulations implemented by Congress
11.  Cl. 17 – Exclusive governmental authority over the District of Columbia
12.  Cl 18 – Necessary and Proper Clause
vi.   § 9 – Limits on Congress
1.    Cl. 2 – writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless in cases of rebellion or invasion and the public safety may require it
2.    Cl. 3 – no ex post facto laws
vii.  § 10 – Limits on the States
1.    Cl. 1- No state shall enter into treaties, no ex post facto laws, no law impairing obligation of contracts (Contract Clause), cannot coin money, cannot grant titles of nobility
2.    Cl. 3 – No state shall keep troops or ships of war in time of peace without consent of Congress or enter into any agreement with another state or foreign power unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit delay
b.    Article II – Executive Branch
i.      § 1 – Cl. 1 Vesting Clause – executive power shall be vested in a President
1.    Power not limited to enumerated powers (look to Jackson’s concurrence in Youngstown)
2.    Cl. 8 – Oath of Office
ii.     § 2 – Executive Powers
1.    Cl 1 – Commander in Chief – of the army, navy, and militia of the states
a.    “opinion in writing of principal officer of each executive dept” – implicitly creates the Cabinet
2.    Cl 2 – Advice and Consent Clause – powers exercised with the “advice and consent” of the Senate
a.    Treaties
b.    Appointments
i.      President appoints: Ambassadors, public ministers and other officers whose appointments are not listed
ii.     Congress has the power to vest the power to appoint such inferior officers, as they think proper, in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the heads of executive departments [US v. Nixon – 8] iii.    § 3 – Presidential Responsibilities
1.    Cl. 1 – Give the “State of the Union” “from time to time”
2.    Cl. 5 – Take Care Clause – “take care that the laws be faithfully executed.”
3.    Cl. 6 – Commissions all officers of the United States
a.    Large impact in Marbury
iv.   § 4 – Impeachment – The President, Vice President and all civil Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on Impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other High crimes and Misdemeanors.
1.    House impeaches
2.    Senate tries
c.    Article III – Judiciary
i.      § 1 – Ordain and Establish clause – Judicial power vested in one SCOTUS and in such inferior courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish
ii.     § 2 – Jurisdiction of SCOTUS
1.    Cl 1 – over all cases and controversies arising under the Constitution, laws of the US, and treaties made;  All cases involving ambassadors, other public ministers and consuls; Cases of admiralty and maritime; when the US is a party; between two or more states; between a state (or citizens thereof) and foreign states or citizens.
2.    Cl. 2 – SCOTUS Orig. Jx for cases involving ambassadors, public ministers and consuls; Appellate Jx for all other cases with exceptions as made by Congress
a.    Issue in McCullough v. Maryland – 1
3.    Cl. 3 – Trial by jury for all criminal acts
iii.    § 3 – Treason – Defines treason and punishment for treason
d.    Article IV – States
i.      § 1 – Full Faith and Credit – shall be given in each state to the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state.
ii.     § 2 – Privileges and Immunities
1.    Cl. 1 – Citizens of each state shall be entitled to Privileges and Immunities of Citizens of the several states] 2.    Cl. 2 – Extradiction required between states
iii.    § 3 – Addition of States to the Union – requires consent of Congress
iv.   § 4 – US guarantees each state a republican form of government; protection against invasion; an

2.  Standards of Review
a.    Constitutional Basis: The 14th Amendment provides that no state shall “deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” SCOTUS has ruled that equal protection applies to federal government under the due process clause of the 5th Amendment
i.      Substantive Due Process guarantees that law will be fair and reasonable and not subjective.
ii.     Equal Protection review triggers when people who are similarly situated are treated differently (remember separate but equal)