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Criminal Procedure II
University of Mississippi School of Law
Clancy, Thomas K.

FALL 2008
I.       Pretrial Release
A.    In general (746-56)
1.      State v. Boyle
a.       Amendment VIII
i.        “Excessive bail shall not be required…”
ii.      applies to feds only
iii.    no punishment bf conviction
b.      Is there a constitutional right to bail?
i.        Purpose of bail is to ensure that accused return for trial. Anything beyond that is excessive.
ii.      “traditional right to freedom before conviction”
(1)   Sounds like there is a constitutional right to bail, they talk about how it is a traditional right
(2)   Amendment VIII protects a right to bail
c.       There can be no blanket bail – each person requires an individualized suspicion
2.      United States v. Salerno
a.       Def denied bail in the entirety bc there was such a fear that they might commit future crimes upon release
b.      Rehnquist says there is NO ABSOLUTE RIGHT TO BAIL
i.        8th Amendment protects against “excessive” bail but says nothing about “whether bail is available at all.” Bail is regulatory; not procedural.
ii.      Just, if there is bail given, it can’t be excessive
c.       8th Amendment is not incorporated into 14th DPC so it can be a DPC attack
3.      Nature of the interests at stake:
a.       What are D’s interests?
i.        Assist in his defense
ii.      Keep his job
iii.    Stress on family ties
iv.    Bail reinforces the presumption of innocence
b.      Gov’t’s interests?
i.        Protecting the community from other crimes
ii.      Ensuring that offenders will be available for trial
iii.    Prevent Evidence from being destroyed or intimidation of witnesses
iv.    Def may flee
c.       Third party custodians
i.        Bondsmen
ii.      Social services
iii.    Responsible adult
d. If there is a pretrial person/ agency asking questions of accused, none of info can be used in trial b/c 5th Am violation to use info from un-counseled crim D
B.     Legal Framework to resolve conflicting interests
1.      State v. Boyle
2.      Statutory Criteria: “Typical factors to determine if the D is entitled to bail”:
a.       Nature, circumstances of offense
b.      Weight of evidence
c.       Financial ability of Def to give bail
d.      Character of D (everyone is evaluated on an individual basis)
i.        Criminal history
ii.      Community ties
iii.    Employment
iv.    Education
v.      Physical, mental condition
e.       BAIL REFORM ACT § 3142(g) factors in weighing process
i.        Nature & circumstances of the offense charged, including whether the offense is a crime of violence or involves a narcotic drug
ii.      Weight of evidence against the person
iii.    The history and characteristics of the person
(1)   Person’s character
•       This is why as an atty you want to verify D’s info
(2)   Physical and mental condition
(3)   Family ties
(4)   Employment
(5)   Financial resources
(6)   Length of residence in community
(7)   Community ties
(8)   Past conduct
(9)   History relating to drug or alcohol abuse
(10)                       Criminal history
(11)                       Record concerning appearance at court proceedings
(12)                       Whether, at the time of the current offense or arrest,
•       The person was on probation
•       Parole
•       On other release pending trial
•       Sentencing
•       Appeal
•       Or completion of sentence for an offense under federal, state or local law
iv.    The nature and seriousness of the danger to any person or the community that would be posed by the person’s release
v.      Can’t retain a person on an inability to pay
C.     Balancing the interests: setting conditions of release
1.      typical non-financial:
a.       “ROR”: release on own recognizance
b.      Supervised release by pretrial services agency [period reporting] c.       Drug/alcohol testing, treatment
d.      Get, maintain job
e.       Stay-away orders (victims, witnesses)
f.       Restrictions on travel
g.      Home detention
h.      3rd party release
i.        To relatives (responsible people)
ii.      Social services agency (comply w/ their requirements)
iii.    Halfway houses
i.        Compliance w/ all laws
2.      financial: post bond
a.       surety bonds: bondsman puts up the $$
i.        D typically pays 10% for service
b.      Unsecured bonds: only have to pay if he fails to show
c.       Percentage bond: D pays certain % of bond – gets it back he shows up
D.    Consequences of failure to appear
1.      separate crime with separate time served
2.      forfeit your bond
3.      if you commit a crime upon release?
a.       Get consecutive sentencing
b.      10 years for felony
c.       1 year for misdemeanor
4.      sanctions
a.       contempt of court
b.       revocation
c.       Detention
5.      Bail bondsman can pick you up and get his money back. Atty should emphasize to client consequences of violating bail.
E.     Preventive detention
1.      Bail Reform Act
a.       In general: presumption in favor of release
i.        §3142(b): “shall order pretrial release … unless:”
(1)   Can’t reasonably assure D’s presence (flight risk)
•       burden: clear and convincing evidence
(2)   D is danger to safety of another/ community
•       burden: preponderance of evid
b.      Setting conditions; select the least restrictive conditions
i.        §3142(c)(1)(b) list of conditions
c.       Must hold hearing upon gov’t motion when
i.        Convicted of (f)(1) offense
(1)   A crime of violence
(2)   An offense for which the m

were not charged
•       The articles brought up by the D didn’t apply bc it was about sentencing and not prosecution
ii.                  Bell
(1)               Black man riding bike at night. Stopped for not having light. Arrested searched and found crack. Motion to suppress evidence
(2)               Burden to establish violation of EP: law enforcement must KNOW
•       Yick Wo is the only case that has met this burden
a.      “illustrative” factors in exercising discretion:
i.        Prosecutor’s reasonable doubt in guilt
(1)   “A prosecutor shall NOT be compelled by supervisor to prosecute case in which she/he has reasonable doubt about the guilt of the accused.”
ii.      Harm caused by the offense
iii.    Disproportion of penalty to offense/offender
iv.     Possible improper motives of complainant
v.       Reluctance of victim to testify
(1)   Spousal abuse cases
vi.     Cooperation of accused in catching others
(1)   Snitches
vii.   Likelihood of prosecution by another jurisdiction
(1)   Does the other jurisdiction have more real involvement than you?
(2)   Is most of the evidence/witnesses in the other jurisdiction?
b.      Limitations:
i.        Must be supported by probable cause
ii.      Don’t file if insufficient admissible evidence
iii.    No weight given to political/personal advantage
iv.     No more charges than evidence reasonably supports
5.      “How to charge 30,000 images if child porn?”
a.      What are the considerations????
i.        Practical considerations
(1)   Balance of justice
b.      Up to 30,000 victims:
i.        You have to prepare case
ii.      Days to arraign (read all the charges!)
iii.    Months for trial
iv.     Days just to read charge to jury
c.       Tailoring charges:
i.        By identified victims
ii.      By photos that show different acts
iii.    By clear photos
iv.     By youngest victims
d.      Don’t over indict – judge/jury get really mad!
a.      Blackledge v. Perry
i.        Due Process precludes (usually) trial judge imposing harsher sentence after successful appeal of conviction [NC v. Pearce] (1)   Pearce says that you can’t do this bc it is a violation of the DPC