Select Page

Advanced Criminal Procedure
University of Kansas School of Law
Gottlieb, David J.

Advanced Criminal Procedure Outline
 
I.                    Pretrial Release
a.       8th Amendment: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted
b.       Start with arrest of individual
                                                               i.      If no warrant within 48 hours of arrest, has to be a determination of probable cause
1.       Initial Appearance
a.       KS & Federal system
b.       Appear before judge to determine if there is probable cause to proceed
                                                                                                                                       i.      If there is, continue with filing of Complaint
c.       Δ informed of rights
                                                                                                                                       i.      To an attorney
1.       Doesn’t necessarily mean an attorney is present at the time of the initial appearance
2.       Some jurisdictions have public defenders in the courtroom for the initial appearance
d.       Bail usually set at initial appearance
c.       Bail Traditionally
                                                               i.      Δ is charged with criminal charge
1.       Provides incentive to flea
2.       Make Δ deposit an amount of money with the Court to assure they will come back for trial
a.       Get money back, win or lose
                                                             ii.      Two aspects of process
1.       More we worry about Δ, higher the dollar amount
2.       Money usually secured by licensed bondsman
a.       Individual goes to a surety, pays 10%
b.       If show up for trial, bond is paid; otherwise forfeited
                                                                                                                                       i.      Gives rights to bounty hunters
                                                            iii.      Standard for setting bail
1.       Risk of flight
a.       Whether or not Δ was likely to flee
2.       Concerns from both sides
a.       Hugely dependant on individual’s ability to pay
                                                                                                                                       i.      Studies showed individuals were being held on trivial offenses because they couldn’t post bond
b.       Promoted a kind of dishonesty among courts
                                                                                                                                       i.      A lot of bonds were being set to assure that the individual couldn’t get out of pretrial detention
                                                                                                                                     ii.      Often done based on how dangerous Δ was instead of risk of flight
d.       Bail Modernized
                                                               i.      Note: Kansas still has a presumption in favor of surety-ship
                                                             ii.      Bail Reform Act
1.       Passed in the 1960s; THIS IS NOT THE LAW NOW
2.       Established release of the individual as the preferred way to deal with the individual
3.       Question of flight risk was the only relevant question
4.       Set a presumption in favor of releas

           i.      Before a case is even given to prosecutors, police has discretion on whether to arrest
                                                             ii.      Unless there is an invidious reason for exercising discretion, police generally invested with full discretion
1.       i.e. race
                                                            iii.      K.S.A. 22-2307 Domestic violence calls
1.       Requires officers to make arrest when there is probable cause that a crime is being/has been committed
2.       Control on police discretion
b.       Prosecutorial discretion
                                                               i.      Two points
1.       Prosecutors are generally elected officials
a.       Or have been appointed by an elected official
2.       Have enormous discretion in selecting who to prosecute
a.       In most jurisdictions no system for review
b.       Statutes in some jurisdictions allow for private prosecutions
                                                                                                                                       i.      Individuals who are not prosecutors can intervene and force a prosecution
                                                                                                                                     ii.      Often Attorney General replacing local prosecutor