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Torts
University of Illinois School of Law
Robbennolt, Jennifer K.

—TORTS—

I.            Intentional Torts
1.      Intent
a.Definition
1.       desire to cause the consequences of the act (harm to another)                
OR
2.       belief/understanding that the consequences are substantially certain to result (97% sure)

b.Subjective Test—what did D know?
1.       Not what a reasonable person would have desired or believed, but what the particular defendant in fact believed                       (Consider past history, experiences, etc.)
2.       Children/Mentally Insane can be held liable
a.       Age/mental capacity is used as evidence of intent
b.       e.g. what would a 5-year-old know?
i.      e.g. If a child aims a gun at you and pulls the trigger knowing with substantial certainty that a bullet will hit you, he can be liable for battery
ii.      e.g. if the insane person hits you because she’s mad, then she’s liable for battery
3.       Volition:
a.       can’t have intent without making a volitional movement, BUT
b.       you can make a volitional movement without having intent
4.       Motive: is irrelevant; might be playing a joke, or have good intentions, but STILL liable

c.Transferred Intent
1.       defendant intends to commit one of five intentional torts against a particular person but instead:
a.       commits that intentional tort against a different person
b.       commits a different intentional tort against that person
c.       commits a different intentional tort against a different person
2.       If you have the intent for any intentional tort, can transfer it to one of 5 intentional torts:
a.       Battery
b.       Assault
c.       False Imprisonment
d.       Trespass to Land
e.       Trespass to Chattels













2.      Battery
a.Prima Facie Case
1.       Conduct
2.        Intentionally
3.       Causing
4.       Harmful/offensive contact with the person of another (2)


b.Conduct
1.       Must be a volitional movement
2.       e.g. Not conduct when sleeping, have a heart attack, etc.
c.Intentionally
1.       Defendant must
a.       desire to cause a result of harmful contact OR
b.       desire to cause a result offensive contact OR

tomatically = offensive
i.      Known Special Sensitivity Exception: If D knows that P does NOT want to be tapped on the shoulder, it’s offensive if he taps,
4.       P does not have to know that the contact is offensive at the time.
5.       Objects closely identified with the body:
a.       actual physical contact is not necessary to constitute battery if it is contact with an object closely identified with the body

3.       Assault—“Defendant who touches the mind”
a.Prima Facie Case
1.       Conduct
2.       Intentionally
3.       Causing
4.       reasonable apprehension of an imminent harmful/offensive contact with plaintiff’s person


b.Apprehension—aware of and uncomfortable with the prospect of harmful/offensive contact
1.       The apparent ability of for the contact to occur will come into consideration (objective test)