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Torts
University of Dayton School of Law
Gerla, Harry S.

Torts Outline
I.                    Intentional Torts
a.      Battery
                                                               i.      A person is liable for battery if he acts intending to cause harmful or offensive contact with another person and the contact actually occurs
1.      Intent: a desire or substantial certainty that contact will occur
2.      Harmful: cause pain or injury
3.      Offensive: that which would offend a reasonable person’s sense of personal dignity
4.      Contact: direct or indirect physical touching
5.      Person: a human being or object associated with, attached to, or in close approximation with
                                                             ii.      Split in authority
1.      Majority Rule
a.       If the contact is harmful by today’s standards, and there is intent to contact another person, there is a battery. If the contact is not offensive by today’s standards, and there is intent to harm another person, there is a battery.
                                                                                                                                       i.      Question Sequence:
1.      Is it offensive? Does it offend a reasonable person’s sense of personal dignity?
2.      If yes, was there intent to contact?
3.      If no, was there intent to harm?
2.      Restatement 2nd Rule = Minority
a.       If there is intention to cause harmful or offensive contact to another person, there is a battery.
                                                                                                                                       i.      Question Sequence:
1.      Was there intent to harmfully contact?
2.      Was there intent to offensively contact?
b.      Assault
                                                               i.      Assault is the intentional creation of a reasonable apprehension, in a person, of an imminent battery, and the apprehension is actual.
1.      Apprehension: Perception, not fear
2.      Imminent: Immediate, not sometime in the future. No significant delay
3.      Intentional creation
a.       Mere words Cannot be assault
                                                                                                                                       i.      With action; they can be an assault.
1.      Must be an action or gesture by defendant who intends to cause a reasonable apprehension (from victim’s point of view) of an imminent battery
                                                             ii.      Majority Rule: An assault occurs when a person takes an action to intentionally create a reasonableapprehension in another person of an imminent battery and that apprehension actually occurs.
1.      Requires reasonable apprehension
                                                            iii.      Minority Rule (Restatement): An assault occurs when a person takes an action to intentionally create an apprehension in another person of an imminent battery and that apprehension actually occurs.
1.      Do not have to have a reasonable apprehension
c.       False Imprisonment
                                                               i.      An intentional confinement of a person in set boundaries against their will.
1.      Confinement
a.       Any Reasonable exit is not confinement
b.      Confinement is literally no way out or no exit without sacrificing physical safety or reasonable sense of personal dignity.
                      

3.      Severe emotional distress suffered by the plaintiff: must be able to prove substantially.
                                                             ii.      Defendant’s actions must be the cause in fact of the plaintiff’s emotional distress itself
     
II.                 Defenses to Intentional Torts
a.       Defenses are for defense not individual causes of action
b.      Intended to harm someone else
                                                               i.      Transferred Intent Doctrine:
1.      Intent to commit one intentional tort transfers if that tort is accidently committed against another.
2.      When an intentional tort is intended to harm a person and another intentional tort is actually committed, the intent transfers
c.       Mental Illness
                                                               i.      Valid defense if person does not meet an element because of it.
1.      Person believes they are hitting a giant cockroach, not another person.
                                                             ii.      Invalid defense if person is still substantially certain that something will occur.
                                                            iii.      Mentally ill can still make the necessary intent to contact or intent to harm.
d.      Consent
                                                               i.      Actual