I. INTENTIONAL TORTS
i. Incredibly important in EVERY tort.
ii. Articulating what it means IS ESSENTIAL!
iii. One is PRESUMED to intend the natural and probable consequences of his act.
iv. Substantial Certainty
1. Intent can be shown if you make physical contact with somebody and you are certain that harm will occur as a result of that contact. Vosburg v. Putney
v. DOCTRINE OF TRANSFERRED INTENT
1. Where you intend to hit someone but you hit someone else. Your intent is transferred to that other person.
2. Ex. Throwing a rock at a person, but hitting the person sitting next to them. The intent that the actor had would be transferred to the person that they hit.
b. TORTS TO THE PERSON
1. Intention to cause harmful or offensive contact to another.
2. Touching is sufficient to constitute a battery
3. Unlawful touching of another person.
4. Element: Lack of Consent
a. Example: The doctor performing the ear operation without the consent of the patient. He could have gained consent easily; therefore, there was a lack of consent. Mohr v. Williams
5. Element: Intent
a. Knowing that the harm is likely to cause harm can define intent.
6. Element: Harmful or Offensive Touch
dant INTENT to cause the harm?
3. Element: IMMEDIATE APPREHENSION
a. A future threat is not an assault. Tuberville v. Savage
b. Threats to action at a later time DO NOT CREATE IMMEDIATE APPREHENSION!
4. Element: NOT MERE WORDS
a. A mere threat is NOT assault.
i. Sometimes words accompanied by certain factual circumstances could amount to an assault.
1. Ex. “I’m gonna kill you you S.O.B.” While slapping a gun could be an assault.
Element: APPARENT ABILITY TO CARRY OUT ACT