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Criminal Law
University of Dayton School of Law
Hagel, Thomas

Criminal Law Introduction….. 4
·           Criminal Law Defined           4
·           Historical Sources of Criminal Law           4
·           Criminal Law today 4
·         Types of Crimes (Big Picture)…….. 4
Punishment….. 5
·           Introduction   5
·           Rehabilitation (change offender into non-offender)           5
·           Deterrence (specifically deter this criminal again and generally deter other criminals the first time)…. 5
·           Incapacitation (remove this threat from society)…….. 5
·           Retribution (we are angry at criminal, punish for punishment’s sake) 6
Mens Rea (Mental Element)……………………… 6
·           Introduction (“guilty mind)……….. 6
·         Levels of Culpability           6
§           Purposely (conscious object is to engage in conduct: intentionally)      6
§           Knowingly (not specifically intended but reasonably certain to cause particular result)….. 7
§           Recklessly (recognizes and consciously disregards a substantial and unjustifiable risk)….. 7
§           Negligently (“grossly” fails to recognize substantial and unjustifiable risk)….. 7
·           Transferred Intent Doctrine (transfer only if result is same criminal act, different target)……… 8
·         Mistake           8
o           Mistake of Fact (specific intent à honestly held mistake; general intent à honestly held and reasonable)         8
o           Mistake of Law (only if crime requires knowledge of law and desire to violate it; or rely on Official Statement)           9
o        MPC §2.04: Ignorance or Mistake           10
Actus Reus (The Act)…………….. 10
·           Introduction (“guilty act”) 10
·         Actus Reus as Commission (must be voluntary act à not reflex, unconscious mvmt, hypnosis, or status)…….. 10
·         Actus Reus as Omission (must have legal duty (contract, statutory, relationship, or assumed) and failure to act)    11
·         Actus Reus as Possession (actual (physical) or constructive (control over and failure to terminate control))…. 11
Causation……. 11
·           Requirements for Causation (Cause-in-Fact and Proximate Cause).. 11
·         “A” Cause-in-Fact (but, for act à no result)           12
·           Proximate Cause (is it fair, given this chain of events à reasonably foreseeable and no intervening causes)…… 12
o           Reasonably foreseeable           12
o           Intervening Cause (not intervening if à foreseeable and Δ action was substantial factor).. 12
·         MPC on Causation (§2.03)……. 12
Attempt (Specific Intent Crime) 13
·           Requirements for Attempt (specific intent to complete target crime and “substantial step” towards completion) 13
·           Analyzing Attempt (form specific intent, plan/prep, substantial step (attempt), intervening cause or completion) 13
·         MPC §5.01: Criminal Attempt….. 13
·         Defenses to Attempt 14
o           Abandonment of Attempt (attempt à abandonment à no target crime: Not Defense) 14
o           Impossibility (Hybrid Legal & Factual Impossibility à not defense; Legal Impossibility à defense) 15
·           Process for Impossibility       16
Homicide…….. 16
·           Common Law Levels of Homicide:           16
o        1) Involuntary Manslaughter (lowest à least blameworthy)     16
·           Recklessness (unintentional)   16
·           Criminal Negligence (more th

facilitate felony or flight)…….. 21
·         MPC §212.1 Kidnapping (move or confine/restrain; for purpose of ransom, facilitate felony/flight, or terrorize) 21
·         Other Kidnapping Issues (Felonious Restraint; false imprisonment; criminal coercion [blackmail]) 21
Rape……………. 22
·           Common Law Rape (nonconsensual, coerced by force or threat of force, and victim resisted or fear obviated resistance) 22
o           Common Law Rape Elements 22
o           Marital Exemption (Majority: partial exemption for husbands if living together) 22
o           Gender Neutral Crime (Majority: males and females can be convicted)           22
o           Target of Force or Threat (Majority: must be directed at victim).. 22
·         MPC §213.1 Rape (compels by force/threat of force on anyone; or impairs her power (drug); unconscious; < 10) 22 ·         MPC §213.3: Corruption of Minors and Seduction (< 16 or < 21 and is a guardian)           23 ·         MPC §213.6: Provisions Applicable to Sex Crimes 23 o        1) Mistake of Age [no defense if < 10 years; otherwise is defense if honestly held and reasonable]         23 o        2) Spouse Relationships [partial exclusion if not judicially separated]           23 o        3) Sexually Promiscuous Victim [minority: allows evidence of promiscuity]       23 Theft............... 23 ·           Introduction