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Civil Procedure I
University of Dayton School of Law
Perna, Richard P.

Civil Procedure Outline
 
I.                     Type of Jurisdiction
a.       In personam jurisdiction
                                                               i.      Permits a court to enter a judgment that is personally binding on defendant
b.       In rem jurisdiction
                                                               i.      Permits a court to adjudicate the rights over a piece of property
c.       Quasi in rem jurisdiction
                                                               i.      Two Types
1.       Permits a court to determine rights of particular parties in property under its control
2.       Permits a court having jurisdiction over defendant’s property, but not over defendant personally to use the property to satisfy plaintiff’s personal claim against defendant; severely limited
 
II.                   Personal Jurisdiction
a.       Contacts with Forum
                                                               i.      International Shoe generated a two stage approach to jurisdiction problems looking first at purposeful availment requirement and then at the reasonableness of permitting jurisdiction: POLICY: The maintenance of the suit does not offend traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice
1.       Systematic and continuous activity
2.       Single Contact
a.       If contract being sued on had a substantial connection with the State
3.       Purposeful Availment
a.       Focuses solely on activities of defendant, looking for some voluntary action by defendant establishing a beneficial relationship with forum state / i.e. benefits and protections of its laws
                                                                                                                                       i.      POLICY: Fair warning that a particular activity may subject defendant to the jurisdiction of a particular area; gives a degree of predictability to the legal system as to some minimum assurance as to where that conduct will and will not render them liable to suit
                                                                                                                                     ii.      Foreseeability
1.       Important, but insufficient; defendant’s conduct with respect to the forum state that defendant could foresee being sued in the state
2.       Unilateral Act of Plaintiff
a.       Plaintiff bringing a product to the forum or relocating in the forum is insufficient to establish the requisite connection
3.       Long-Term Relationship
a.       Has established a long-term relationship with a forum resident, that may suffice
                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Franchise agreement
                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Acceptance of corporate directorship
4.       Serve or Seek to Serve
a.       Single Act
                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Asserting a claim growing out of the act
5.       Stream of Commerce
a.       Delivers its products into the stream of commerce with the expectation that they will be purchased by consumers in the forum state
                                                                                                                                                                                                               i.      Ends with the retail sale, even if it is foreseeable that the purchaser will take the product to another state
                                                                                                                                                                                                             ii.      Manufacturer or Component supplier: placing a product in the stream is not sufficient, some additional conduct which indicated an intent or purpose to serve the forum state
 
                                                                                                                                    iii.      Relation to

on over a thing is a way of referring to jurisdiction over the interests of persons in a thing; viewed analogous to personal jurisdiction in terms of protecting those interests
b.       Presence of property support jurisdiction
                                                               i.      May bear on the existence of jurisdiction by providing contacts among the forum state, the defendant and litigation
1.       True in rem
a.       State would have jurisdiction based on the presence of the property
                                                                                                                                       i.      Purposely availing and foresee being sued
c.       Three prong test to determine
                                                               i.      Relationship to the State, defendant and the claim
1.       When property is completely unrelated to the claim, its presence alone will not suffice to support jurisdiction
V.                  Challenging Personal Jurisdiction
a.       Must raise in timely fashion
b.       Three options for a defendant
                                                               i.      Do nothing and have default judgment entered
1.       Can argue that full faith and credit should not be given to the judgment because court lacked personal jurisdiction
                                                             ii.      Go and defend
                                                            iii.      Go and litigate jurisdiction
1.       Objection to jurisdiction can be raised with other defenses
2.       Objection may have to be made by special appearance
                                                            iv.      If you don’t object to jurisdiction, waive the right