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Advanced Criminal Law
University of Dayton School of Law
Hoffmeister, Thaddeus

Advanced Criminal Law
1.      Why Federal Law and State Law?
a.       Federal Level 
                                                              i.      Have multiple jurisdictions
                                                            ii.      More money involved will bump it to federal level
                                                          iii.      Types of crimes are more adapt to federal level
                                                          iv.      Involves political appointment to their position
                                                            v.      Want national standards
b.      State Level
                                                              i.      More dealing with localized crimes
                                                            ii.      Officials more accountable because of occupy elected positions
                                                          iii.      A little faster
                                                          iv.      There are local standards: what is important is what happens in the state
1.      Example, OH = death penalty state and MI= non-death penalty
c.       Main Problem in the Article
                                                              i.      Federal government can’t tell how many laws there are
1.      Over 4,000 federal criminal laws
2.      There has been exceptional growth in federal criminal laws in last 30 years
a.       Like Erie Doctrine- don’t want judges creating penalties and law going against state
4.      More law on the books = more power to the prosecutor
1.      5th Amendment
a.       Deals with double jeopardy
b.      Deals with grand jury
2.      Heath v. Alabama
a.       Facts: P hired two men to murder his wife. P went to AL to give two men what they needed. Two men kidnapped and killed the wife in GA. GA returned a grand jury indictment for MALICE MURDER. P took deal of life in prison with chance of parole in 7 yrs, plead guilty. P was indicted in AL rejecting double jeopardy clause and found guilty of MURDER DURING KIDNAPPING and sentenced to death.
b.      Issue: Whether the doctrine of dual sovereignty to successive dual prosecutions by two states is applicable?
c.       Ct. Holding
                                                              i.      Committing a crime in two separate states = two separate offenses
                                                            ii.      Successive prosecution by two states under dual sovereignty doctrine not barred by double jeopardy because each state has its own inherent sovereignty and has the power to enforce and create own criminal code
3.      Double Jeopardy
a.       Federal → State = Yes (Vick)
b.      State → Different State = Yes (Heath)
c.       State → Federal = Yes (R. King)
4.      Petite Policy
a.       Purpose
                                                              i.      to protect from multiple prosecutions. Federal prosecution cant prosecute based on same acts from state or federal prosecution.
b.      Three Ways to Prosecute Again
                                                              i.      Substantial federal interest
                                                            ii.      Prior prosecution left interest unvindicated

ndard if it exists → indictment issued then moves to a higher standard: Beyond a Reasonable Doubt
                                                            ii.      Indictment through lower standard = more people plea bargaining or hurt reputation even if innocent
b.      If you increase the standard → may rise amount of work for the prosecutor
                                                              i.      Sword: use the grand jury as an INVESTIGATIVE BODY
1.      Use of subpoena power (don’t bring in target of G.J.)
2.      Secrecy surround the grand jury process
a.       Which doesn’t inspire confidence
3.      No limits on the amount of evidence a grand jury can hear
a.       Can hear hearsay, testimony
b.      Fewer fourth amendment restraints
                                                            ii.      Shield: use the grand jury as an ACCUSATORY BODY
1.      Weeds out bad cases, keeps good ones to protect people
2.      Protects citizens from unfair criminal prosecution
3.      Don’t have to indict and work on their own in early days
a.       Later on crimes got more complex and bring in prosecutor
                                                          iii.      Four Outcomes in Grand Jury
1.      True Bill = indictment
2.      No True Bill = no indictment
3.      Discharge or Expiration w/o action
4.      Submission of report to court