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Administrative Law
University of Dayton School of Law
Howarth, Cooley R.

Administrative Law
Professor Howarth, Summer 2011
1.      Definition: series of laws to control the decision making of an administrative agency
a.      APA § 551: an authority of U.S. Gov. even if it’s subject to review by another agency
                                                  i.      Private
1.      insulated from presidential branch (must have cause)
2.      board (multi-member) heads; serve terms; party affiliation controlled
3.      EX: FCC, FTC, SEC
                                                ii.      Public (Departments)
1.      personnel change w/ office (presidential appointment)
2.      single agency heads
3.      EX: Treasury, Interior, Labor
                                              iii.      Not Agencies: government corporations (Amtrack), states
b.      benefits: more effective/efficient (one-stop shopping)
                                                  i.      specialization of rule-making/enforcement
                                                ii.      agencies given all three powers: legislative, judicial, executive
c.       what they do (defined by statute):
                                                  i.      regulate private/government conduct (EPA, SEC)
                                                ii.      administer entitlements (Social Security, Dept. of Agriculture -> food stamps)
                                              iii.      everything else (IRS, INS)
d.      typically a battle between efficiency/effectiveness vs. fairness/accountability
2.      Responses to Administrative Agencies
a.      comply
b.      appeal
c.       influence agency’s decisions: create rules that give least harm to clients
                                                  i.      must know procedural mechanisms: look for places to argue your case
3.      Sources of Administrative Authority
a.      Statutory: grant of authority from a legislature to agency in statue
b.      Organic Statute/Enabling Act: statute that gives agency its power
                                                  i.      creates agency
                                                ii.      delegates authority to agency
1.      grants legislative, judicial, executive power
2.      problems Congress not equipped to handle (requires specificity)
                                              iii.      limits authority of agency: must be a grant of authority
1.      no inherent or common law powers in admin law
a.      all power is statutory
2.      ultra vires: agency acts outside statutory authority are void
c.       state constitution may create an agencies (minority of the time)
4.      Scope/Legitimacy of Administrative Agency Authority
a.      Constitutional Provisions:
                                                  i.      Necessary and Proper Clause: Congress has authority to make all laws necessary and proper for ensuring that powers are effectuated properly
                                                ii.      System of Checks and Balances: precludes complete separation of powers
b.      (Non)Delegation Doctrine:
                                                  i.      Congress has authority to delegate power to agencies as long as it gives an intelligible principle to follow in the exercise of that principle
1.      prohibits excessive delegation of authority to agencies
                                                ii.      intelligible principle (ascertainable standard): limits/describes the scope of agency power; sets standards to follow
1.      not required to be exact: just limiting (“in the public interest”)
a.      court must simply be able to tell whether agency acted within its designated authority (key is some constraint)
2.      applies to delegations of all three powers:
a.      Legislative Delegation
b.      Judicial Delegation
c.       Executive Delegation
                                              iii.      separation of powers issue exists with judicial + executive delegation
1.      HOWEVER: allowable as long as some ascertainable standard
a.      courts allow it for efficiency
                                               iv.      rarely invalidates: court will simply narrow the interpretation
1.      absent a clear indication from Congress -> court assumes a non-unconstitutional interpretation (Benzene)
2.      creative interpretation can be used to broaden/limit authority
                                                 v.      states can narrow the use of the delegation doctrine: more/less strict
c.       Challenges:
                                                  i.      Delegation Doctrine: Was the power delegated to agency valid?
1.      constitutional challenge: Congress acted unconstitutionally by making statute that does not have a ascertainable standard
a.      challenging the standard:
                                                                                                                          i.      ascertainable standard too vague/ not good enough (even if agency has chosen a stricter interpretation)
                                                ii.      Ultra Vires Doctrine: Was the agency action within its delegated powers?
1.      agency challenge: agency action not within the delegated power

                                                                                     ii.      extent of impact (deprivation of liberty/property)
                                                                                                                      iii.      factual basis for determining the impact on each person
                                                                                                                       iv.      Statutory Distinctions (APA § 551)
c.       Why Distinguishing Matters: affects procedures and notice required
7.      When Constitution Applies to Agency Decisions
a.      procedures may be imposed under due process (5th (Federal) + 14th (State) Amends)
b.      Application:
                                                  i.      due process doesn’t apply to general lawmaking
1.      agency adjudication = due process notice + opportunity to be heard
2.      agency rulemaking = no due process
               **no due process in rule-making or discretionary decision-making**
c.       Examples:
                                                  i.      no notice + opportunity:
1.      agency imposes a tax on an across-the-board-basis WITHOUT considering particulars of any individual tax-payer (Bi-Metallic)
                                                ii.      notice + opportunity required:
1.      agency decision to tax property owners under formula particularized to the situation of each property owner (Londoner)
Administrative Rulemaking
1.      Definition:
a.      when an agency proposes + adopts a rule agency equivalent to legislation
                                                  i.      “an agency statement of general applicability and future effect designed to implement, interpret, or prescribe law or policy or describing the organization, procedure, or practice requirements of an agency” (APA)
1.      generally provisions cover broad type of person/entity subject to law
2.      govern conduct that has not yet occurred
b.      codified in Code of Federal Regulations (CFR)