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Administrative Law
University of Connecticut School of Law
Lindseth, Peter L.

Admin Fall 2010 notes/outline
 
I.                    Overview
a.       3 parts to the course:
                                                               i.      Constitutional Restraints,
                                                             ii.      Sub-Constitutional Restraints,
                                                           iii.      Judicial Review
b.      Preface-
                                                               i.      Good Overview of administrative law and challenges to understanding
                                                             ii.      Features include the scope of the subject, technical complexity, difficulty of usefulness, changes in the administration, and the catch 22 of “you can’t understand the parts until you understand the whole and vice versa.
1.      Scope: Limitless scope of administrative law. It encompasses all aspects of Public Law
2.      Strategies
a.       Focus on Fed Level
b.      Have a doctrinal legal focus
c.       Depth vs Breadth
                                                                                                                                       i.      3 branches- Constitutional foundation, Law and statutory authority, Judicial Reiew
c.       Layered character of Administrative law
                                                               i.      Many levels of potential restraints
1.      Constitution (due Process)
2.      Legislature
a.       Enabling legislation
b.      APA (default statue when organic stat is silent)
3.      Agency Regulations
4.      Agency Practices
                                                             ii.      There are arguments to be made at each level
II.                  What is an Agency
a.       Definition
                                                               i.      Page 1 of book: An agency means each authority the Gov’t of the United states whether or not it is within or subject to review by another agency but does not include: Congress, The courts of the U.S. Governments of territories, possessions of the US, gov’t of the DC, or courts martial, mil authority, agencies composed of representatives of the parties or of the representatives of organizations the disputes determined by them
b.      Conceptual level: Principal>Agent theory
                                                               i.      P delegates authority to the A ao that the A acts on P’s behalf
                                                             ii.      Heart of Admin Law is the delegation of authority, but so is the DUTY of A to act on P’s behalf
1.      Raises AGENCY COST PROBLEM
a.       The cost of the P’s oversight to ensure A is acting on P’s behalf
2.      How do you manage it?
a.       Police patrols
                                                                                                                                       i.      Oversight hearings
1.      Goes to the information cost problem, how do you manage the information that A has and how can you require A to give it up
b.      Fire alarms
                                                                                                                                       i.      File suit- A is not acting on P’s behalf
1.      Allows regulated interests or outsiders to pull the alarm for judicial review
c.       Who are Principals
                                                               i.      Ultimately . . . .The people, they are the source of the constitutional and Political authority
                                                             ii.      Generally-
1.      Congress as primary principal
a.       They have legislative power as well as Police Patrol power
2.      BUT
a.       Congress, The PRESIDENT and the COURTS can all be principals to the Agency, each has a claim under the constitution
                                                                                                                                       i.      Agency acts on Regulated interests
                                                                                                                                     ii.      Agency Law has regulated beneficiaries
                                                           iii.      Congress
1.      Has rulemaking power pursuant to the legislative branch
a.       Where does Cong derive its Agency making power
                                                                                                                                       i.      US. Constitution, but no express power granted in- no mandate as to the “guts” of government
                                                                                                                                     ii.      Looks to Necessary and Proper Clause (p5) Art I, sec8 cl 18.
1.      Gives Cong the power to create and structure Agencies
2.      Congress can decrease the agency cost problem by
a.       Adopting legislation with clear and specific mandates
                                                                                                                                       i.      But sometimes it wants to be vague to allow agency to tackle the nitty gritty
b.      Impose procedures of decision-making
c.       Establish 3rd parties in the task of monitoring
3.      HOWEVER; congress doesn’t have complete and unfettered power-
a.       Art II § 1 gives executive power to the president
                                                                                                                                       i.      Does the executive power HAVE to be delegated to the president?
                                                                                                                                     ii.      Does Art II specify that the president Executes
1.      Ambiguity- not necessarily
b.      Raises Separation of Powers issues,
                                                                                                                                       i.      Congress can’t do anything it wants
4.      Can the President be an Agency to Congress’s Principal
a.      Franklin v MA (Census Case)
                                                                                                                                       i.

                                                                                          i.      Yes but in writing, not in person and it only went to determine the districts         
2.      Why was it a violation of DP           
a.       Courts are very deferential when looking laws made by the legislature- not required to give reasons
                                                                                                                                       i.      Rational Basis- the duty of the court is to impute good reasons to the legislature
1.      Unless violation of a fundamental right or suspect class etc.
b.      When looking as the delegated authority that a state cong gave a city agency courts not so deferential (to a subordinate body)
                                                                                                                                       i.      Must give reasons: they’re expected to be experts and thus should give reasons. Have to have an evidentiary basis and articulate the reason
1.      This allows the courts to have a greater scope of review
3.      The individuality of the decision makes this an adjudication and therefore a violation of due process
a.       It took a standard and applied it specifically
b.      Applying a standard in an individual way triggers DP
                                                                                                                                       i.      Adjudications trigger DP
                                                           iii.      Bimetallic
1.      More general than the Londoner side- Can they all be heard
a.       40% increase across the board
2.      It’s not the delegation of power that triggers the DP it’s the individuality of the action.
a.       Individuality is about burden on the decision-maker
3.      If DP only attaches in the context of Adjudication not ROM, what does that get you
a.       Holmes says not much- have to elect different people
b.      But don’t over read. Have other mechanisms
b.      Yesler
                                                               i.      HUD case, Public housing tenants eviction without hearing at issue.
                                                             ii.      Shows importance/difficulty to get action classified as adjudication or RM depending on what you want the outcome to be
                                                           iii.      Ps try to classify as RM so as to require NCRM
1.      More challenges if classified as RM