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Remedies
University of California, Hastings School of Law
Zamperini, Michael A.

REMEDIES OUTLINE–
I. Introduction and Overview
1.       Structure of course: Injxt, Damages, Restitution, Declaratory Judgments (DJ), Torts, K’s.
2.       Theme: every wrong has a remedy.
3.       Legal History:
a.       Merger of cts of law and equity: 1 ct to hears both equitable and legal matters.
                                                   i.      Distinctions b/t case as law and equity:
1.       Jury: only in law action.
2.       “Inadequate remedy at law”: Have to show to get equitable remedy i.e. show $ is inadequate.
3.       Enforcement of orders: law/parties and equity/ct.
4.       Discretion in Equity: Equity ct has discretion in ordering remedy unless statute says otherwise, law ct doesn’t.
4.       Overview: Legal: SS= S:CNPM, S: S, K. Equitable:T:I, K:SP, R, R. Rest: QK, CT, EL, DJ.
a.       Legal Remedies:
                                                   i.      Substitutionary Remedy: sub for something lost or harmed. Biggest = $$.
1.       Compensatory Damages: compensate the P for the harm or the loss.
a.       General Damages: part and parcel of c/a = have this c/a have these damages. “Flow as natural from the harm.” Always in contemplation of the parties.
b.       Special Damages: some P’s may have this; not all. Must be pleaded and proven specifically.
                                                                                                                           i.      Hadley v. Baxendale: have to show damages w/in contemplation of the parties.
2.       Nominal damages: tend to justify the c/a. When proof problems but want to award P. Vindicate wrong. 
3.       Punitive Damages: punish. Focus on D’s actions.
4.       Measurement goal: comp but not over-c. diff w/ K or tort.
a.       Tort: “Make P whole.” Pre-tort condition. Backward looking.
b.       K: put non-breaching party in position had K been performed. BOB/Expectancy/Reliance. Forward looking.
                                                 ii.      Specific legal remedies: remedies wrong specifically.
1.       Statutory: deal w/ a particular c/a.
a.       Legal Replevin: P gets back PP property that is taken.
b.       Ejectment: P gets possession of RP
2.       K:
a.       Liquidated damages: parties set by agreement the specific remedies they want should there be a breach.
b.       Equitable Remedies:
                                                   i.      Tort:
1.       Injxt. keep tort from occurring or occurring again.
2.       Equitable Replevin:
                                                 ii.      K:
1.       Specific performance:
2.       Reformation:
3.       Rescission:
c.       Restitution – look at D: how was D unjustly benefited & enriched.
                                                   i.      Legal Restitutionary causes of action and remedies: Quasi-K
                                                 ii.      Equitable Restitutionary causes of action and remedies:
1.       Constructive trust
2.       Equitable lien
d.       Declaratory judgment: declaration of rights but no relief.
 
II. Equitable Remedies
A. Introduction to Injxt: (remember injxtless does not necessarily mean remediless).
Characteristics of Injxt’s (TRO’s, Prelims, Permanent): R/M IRAL IH D B P/F TI PR E
Rights/merits/underlying wrong: the remedy once you have a cause of action. Must have an underlying c/a to get an injxt. Do you have all the elements?
Inadequate remedy at law: $ won’t compensate P or its not what they want.
Irreparable Harm: tied w/ IRAL i.e. that may be enough. Should separa

.      Purpose: freeze status quo for short period to gather evidence for hearing on prelim.
                                                 ii.      Balance: harm to P if it granted v. harm to D if it is.
b.       Preliminary injxt (interlocutory injxt):
                                                   i.      Purpose: keep D from doing something until we get to full trial. Longer period of time need stronger evidence.
                                                 ii.      Balance: same but longer time period i.e. time frozen till trial = bigger burden.
c.       Permanent injunction:
                                                   i.      Balance: same but infinite period. Need strongest evidence.
 
B. TRO’s: issued prior to trial on merits. Freezing the status quo for time to develop evidence till fuller hearing.
1.       Substantive Req’s:
a.      P has to show likely success on the merits= more than no chance but less than total success, more than just allegations or speculation, like a PF case. (Clinton).
                                                  i.      May have to show more in employment context b/c asking for coerced relationship. (Ahmad)
b.       + IRAL, IH, D, B, P/F, TI PLUS
c.       Emergency Situation: something has happened and we need the injxt right now.
2.       Procedures and Standards for Issuing TRO’s:
Notice: P has to give D notice that they are going into ct seeking a TRO.