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University of California, Hastings School of Law
Zamperini, Michael A.

·         Court of Law: offer damages after injury done
·         Equity Courts: offer injunctive relief when P shows cannot get relief in Law courts
1) Legal Remedies/Damages: granted by Law Ct once P can show elements of some cause of action. 
       I.      SUBSTITUTIONARY REMEDIES: money substituted for the pain
A.    Compensatory Damages: monetary damages that restore P to rightful position, awarded to compensate a damaged party for pecuniary and non-pecuniary kiss 
1.      General Damages: non-economic; pain & suffering; damages that flow as natural from the harm. 
1.      Assumed to have occurred – ALL Ps will have
2.      Special Damages: economic damages. 
1.      Must be proven – only SOME Ps will have
B.     Presumed damages may be SUBSTITUTED for compensatory damages in certain circumstances when injury can be reasonably presumed yet not proven
1.      Ex – CL Defamation (slander per se): is CL tort for which presumed damages are awarded bc damage pursuant to defamation is hard to prove.
C.     Nominal Damages: token of vindication of the rights violated;
1.      Insignificant amount awarded if there problem in proving/calculating compensatory damages 
2.      Purpose: send message/warning to D and next court that D’s behavior was wrong
D.    Punitive Damages: awarded to punish and deter D, as well as warn/deter others 
1.      Tort is necessary to PDs, not awarded in K actions (usually)
2.      Compensatory + Nominal damages are PREDICATE to PDs
3.      Focuses on D’s bad behavior, not Ps rightful position
    II.      SPECIFIC REMEDIES: operate to restore to P the exact item or state of being of which P was wrongfully deprived
A.    Torts – Statutory: specifically provided for and dictated by law; NO substitutions 
1.      Replevin: P given back P’s personal property that D has possession of
2.      Ejectment: P given back P’s real property that D is in possession of/occupying
B.     Contracts – Liquidated Damages: specifically provided for and dictated by K agreed on by P and D
2) Equitable Remedies/Equity: discretionary remedies (i.e. not required) awarded by Equity Ct
       I.      AVAILABILITY of Equitable Relief
A.    Conscience & Equity Demands: court’s use own sense of morality/conscience
B.     In Personam: orders D to do or refrain from doing some act
C.     Inadequacy of Legal Remedy:
1.      Inability to restore or substitute with money
2.      Absence of other remedy
3.      Damages too difficult ot estimate
4.      Problems with collecting judgment
5.      Multiple judicial proceedings will be necessary
6.      Other procedural/practical difficulties with legal remedies
D.    Irreparable Harm: if not stopped now, nothing will be able to compensate Ps harm
E.     Discretionary: court can deny or grant based on circumstances
1.      There is no right to an injunction
    II.      In TORT – i.e. any COA that is NOT a K
A.    Injunction: P brings action asking court to order D to do or not do something 
1.      Many elements depending on where in litigation request comes from.
A.    Specific Performance: making the D perform in accordance with specific terms of K
B.     Reformation: changing existing K to accurately reflect both parties’ beliefs
C.     Rescission: undoes K AND returns parties to status quo
3) Restitution: relinquishes advantages conferred on D as a result of D’s breach
·         DAMAGE AWARD = D’s GAIN, rather than P’s loss
·         Court orders – in addition to OR in place of – equitable OR legal remedies.
·         Purpose: to prevent unjust enrichment
·         Opposite of expectancy!
       I.      LEGAL Restitution
A.    Quasi-K
    II.      EQUITABLE Restitution
A.    Constructive Trust
B.     Equitable Lien
C.     Subrogation
4) Declaratory Judgment: declaration rights meant to stop the cause of action from becoming complete thus resulting in damages
       I.      PROPER WHEN:
A.    Legal rights of parties definitively ascertainable on the facts
B.     Actual or imminent violation of judicially cognizable right
—— LAW & EQUITY ——
       I.      IN REM (Legal): on the person; IN PERSONAM (Equity): on the thing
A.    Acts in rem: deals with subject matter of COA on the thing (e.g the k, Law courts deal with the k itself)
B.     Acts in Personam: deals with COA on the person (is D forced to perform the contract?)
    II.      JURY TRIAL: only get jury trial if you have a law or legal matter, no jury trial in equity courts
A.    Equity Court: enforces its own orders.
B.     Law Court: only provides the judgment a law court, does not enforce its own orders.
(Equitable Remedy)
1) Injunctions: an in personam order directing a person to act or refrain from acting in a specific way. 
1.Deals with COA in the

will be harm to D if D is temporarily restrained?
3.      What will be the harm to the public if TRO is granted or denied?
G.    Tribunal Integrity:
1.      Is it feasible?
                                                                                     a.      Can court do it? Within court’s power? Is there more approp branch that can handle?
                                                                                    b.      Can injunction be narrowly tailored?
2.      Will the injunction be effective?
                                                                                     a.      Will injunction give P a true remedy?
3.      Will the court be able to supervise the enforcement of the injunction?
4.      Will public respect court for this order, or will public hold court in disdain?
A.    Notice:
1.      Movant (P) must: 
                                                                                     a.      Demonstrate efforts to notify adverse party of intent/hearing to seek TRO OR
                                                                                    b.      Introduce evidence that, if notified, adverse party (D), will engage in behavior TRO seeks to prohibit
2.      D is NOT bound until notified of TRO!
B.     Hearing on TRO
1.      If Notice à regular hearing (both parties attend) OR
2.      If NO Notice à Ex Parte (only 1 party appears)
                                                                                     a.      Ex: If cannot find D/harm to P if D notified
                                                                                    b.      Hard to get EP if 1st Am involved
3.      If Ex Parte granted à
                                                                                     a.      Court/judge must explain in TRO why EP granted
                                                                                    b.      D is notified once TRO is issued