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Employment Discrimination
University of California, Davis School of Law
Joslin, Courtney G.

1.             Title VII
o                    race, sex, color, religion, national origin
o                    15 or more employees, labor unions & employment agencies
o                    disparate treatment, disparate impact, retaliation, reverse discrimination
·   exceptions: Indian tribes, employers that employ Native Americans, bona fide membership clubs, religious organizations (only w/regard to religious discrimination), foreign companies doing business in US in compliance w/treaties, military employees can’t sue (Feres doctrine), not independent contractors
2.             ADA
o                    disability
o                    15 or more employees; state and local govt., labor unions, employment agencies
o                    disparate treatment, disparate impact, retaliation (broader than Title VII)
·   exceptions: Indian tribes, bona fide membership clubs, military employees can’t sue (Feres doctrine), not independent contractors
3.             Rehabilitation Act
o                    disability
o                    federal govt., companies contract with federal govt. or receive federal financial assistance
4.             ADEA
o                    40 yrs. or older
o                    20 or more employees
o                    disparate treatment, disparate impact, retaliation
·   exceptions: Indian tribes (not express), military employees can’t sue (Feres doctrine), not independent contractors
5.             § 1981
o                    race, possibly alienage, in relation to public/private contracts
o                    covers private, public employers (Johnson v. Railway Express), independent contractors
o                    no employer size requirement
o                    disparate treatment, retaliation (implied, not express), reverse discrimination 
note: split on whether § 1981 applies to at-will employment
Threshold Requirements – Employer/Employee Relationship
1.             Employer Size – who counts
o                    hourly, part-time, people on leave
o                    parent corp. controlling subsidiary, employees of both are counted
o                    courts split on whether foreign employees of foreign company in US count
o                    unpaid volunteers don’t count; any remuneration or workfare count
o                    § 701(f) elected and appointed officials do not count
2.             Federal and State Government
a.                   Federal Government
·                           separate provisions of Title VII and ADEA cover government employees
·                           § 1981 doesn’t reach the federal government
b.      State Government
·   permitted under Title VII
·   private suits under ADEA not permitted
·   pr

r offering privilege must be available on a non-discriminatory basis
§                                 dissent noted partner/firm not employer relationship (fact specific inquiry)
b.      Clackamas v. Wells (2003) – whether 4 doctor shareholders were employees
·   court guided by common law agency principles and EEOC factors
·   P entitled to jury trial to determine if number of employees fits minimum
o        employer treats individual/group intentionally different because of membership in a protected group (intent to discriminate, causation in fact)
·   two forms: individual disparate treatment, systemic disparate treatment
Individual Disparate Treatment Discrimination
Discriminatory Intent
Slack v. Havens (9th Cir. 1975)
direct evidence, smoking gun “colored clean better” + circumstantial evidence
court found causal relationship between firing and race, corporation ratified conduct
Hazen Paper v. Biggins (1993)
P fired before pension vested
court said correlation between vesting of pension and age not enough
court held D’s burden to come up with LNDR; doesn’t matter if illegal ERISA violation