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Evidence
University of Baltimore School of Law
McLain, Lynn

103
104(a) & (b)
105
106
201
301
302
401-409
411
413-415
501
601-602
606-609
611-613
701-705
801-807
901
902(4)-(9), (11)-(12)
1001 – 1008
 
MD Statutes:
9-104
9-105
9-106
9-108
9-109(b) and (d)
9-116
 
PRIVILEGES
 
            FRE 501: Privileges – federal common law of privileges governs
1.      Unless in Eriecases, state law of privileges applies
 
Last forever—beyond the death of the holder
 
2 General Types of Privileges:
 
(1) Confidential Communications – the holder of the privilege is the confider, not the confidant
 
Privilege
FRE
MD
Attorney-client
YES (CL)
YES
Husband-Wife
YES (CL)
YES
Psychotherapist – patient
YES (CL)
YES
Priest – Penitent
YES (CL)
YES
Accountant – Client
NO PRIVILEGE
YES
Physician – Patient
NO – recognized only if state law recognizes the privilege
NO, only hospital records are confidential
Social Worker – Client
NO PRIVILEGE
Yes
           
                       
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
(2) Broader Privileges
 
 
Privilege
FRE
MD
Attorney Work Product (holder is att’y)
YES
YES
Husband – Wife “spousal immunity” (when one spouse is the accused on a criminal case and other spouse is asked to testify)
YES
YES
Journalist (holder is journalist)
YES
Yes
Legislative – holder is government
YES
YES
Executive – holder is gov’t
YES
YES
Informer – holder is gov’t
YES
YES
 
            ATTORNEY/CLIENT PRIVILEGE
           
            Elements:
1.      Client holds privilege with regard to
2.      confidential
3.      communications
4.      between a lawyer (or lawyer’s agent) and client
5.      Made for the purpose of obtaining professional legal services (even if it turns out that attorney wasn’t hired)
 
BUT NO PRIVILEGE IF
a.       The communication is in furtherance of an ongoing or future crime or fraud; or
b.      The privilege is waived either
                                                                                      i.      By voluntary disclosure of the communication outside a privileged relationship (this one or another privileged relationsip)
1.      E.g., show witness a privileged document to refresh their memory à waiver of privilege
2.      if lawyer talks to client’s wife, that info is privileged b/c husband – wife is another privileged relationship
                                                                                    ii.      by the client’s putting the communication at issue
1.      E.g., by making a claim against the lawyer for ineffective assistance of counsel or malpractice
c.       Will contest – privilege is inapplicable
d.      Identity of client and fee info not privileged
e.       Joint clients – no privilege vis a vis each other
 
Privileges are strictly construed
 
CORPORATE CLIENTS
           
Attorney – corporate client privilege applies when the following conditions are met:
1.      an employee (or former employee)
2.      speaks at the direction of management
3.      w/ regard to conduct (or proposed conduct) within the scope of the employee’s employment
4.      with an attorney who is authorized by mgmt to inquire into the subject and who is seeking info to assist in            
a.      evaluating whether the employee’s conduct is binding on the corporation; or
b.      assessing the legal consequences of the employee’s conduct; or
c.       preparing a legal response to other’s actions regarding that conduct
 
 
            PSYCHOTHERAPIST – PATIENT PRIVILEGE
           
            General:
·         holder of privilege = patient
·         waiver à if mental condition brought into issue
o   i.e., pleading insanity or mental anguish
 
            MD statute
1.      Patient – communicates diagnosis or treatment of mental disorder to
a.       Psychiatrist
b.      Licensed psychologist
c.       Other person participating directly with or under direct supervision of a psychiatrist/psychologist
2.      Privilege – patient or authorized rep. or guardian can refuse to disclose communications relating to mental or emotional condition
 
No Privilege If:
1.      placing patient in mental facility for mental illness
2.      patient discloses info in court ordered exam after being told no privilege exists
a.       if we are saying mentally incompetent to stand trial
3.      civil or criminal proceedings – waiver
a.       patient brings mental condition into issue or defense
                                                                                                  i.      i.e., insanity, mental anguish, emotional distress
b.      beneficiary of will brings patient’s mental condition into question after patient has died
4.      patient makes claim against psychotherapist
a.       malpractice claim
5.      expressly waives privilege
 
Child Abuse reporting requirement – MD requires that psychiatrist report all allegations of child abuse to Social Services or prosecutor
 
EX: Criminal D counsel has Psych #1 interview and

onfidential confessions, made by perpetrator, victim, or anyone else w/ knowledge
 
            JOURNALIST PRIVILEGE
 
                        Elements:
1.      Any person who is, or has been, employed by the news media in any news gathering or new disseminating capacity
2.      cannot be compelled to disclose
a.       the SOURCE of any news or info procured by the person while employed by the news media, whether or not the source has been promised confidentiality; or
b.      any news or info procured by person while employed by the news media, in the course of pursuing professional acitivities, for communication to the public but which is not so communicated, in whole or in part, including:
                                                                                                              i.      notes;
                                                                                                            ii.      outtakes;
                                                                                                          iii.      photos or photo negatives;
                                                                                                          iv.      video and sound tapes;
                                                                                                            v.      film; and
                                                                                                          vi.      other data
3.      Court can compel disclosure of news or information if it established by clear and convincing evidence that
a.       The news or info is relevant to a significant legal issue
b.      The news or info could not, with due diligence, be obtained by any alternate means; and
c.       There is an overriding public interest in disclosure
4.      Court CANNOT COMPEL disclosure of the SOURCE
5.      NO WAIVER – if source or any portion of the news or info is disseminated
 
EX: author of non-fiction book who has never written for media outlet is NOT a journalist under this statute