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Family Law
University of Alabama School of Law
Davis, Penny

Damages Summer 2008
Equitable Remedies, Restitution, and Damages 7th ed. Leavell
I.        Basis to the Division of Law and Equity
                                i.            Protecting the right to a jury trial
                                                             a.      “In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved . . . .”
                              ii.            Difficulty and cumbersomeness of equitable remedies
                            iii.            Historical Differences in Law & Equity
                                                             a.      Equity
a.       Frustrated law petitioners took their cases directly to the King and to the Chancellor
b.      Chancellor heard cases without a jury
c.       Defendant ordered to perform 
d.      Refusal to perform resulted in contempt
e.      Granted injunctions and specific performance
f.        Developed doctrine of uses to allow separation of legal and equitable title
g.       Concept of equity of redemption developed
h.      Necessity that there was inadequate legal remedy
                                                            b.      Law
a.       Law courts included a jury
b.      Adjudicated defendant’s liability
c.       Defendant’s refusal to pay result in sale of property
d.      “Equity” Today
e.      Many doctrines developed in equity courts (subrogation, equity of redemption, promissory estoppel) retain their equitable identification
f.        Certain remedies continue to be categorized as “equitable”
                                                             c.      Legal vs. Equitable Relief
a.       Legal relief—usually substitutionary where the D gives the P money to “undo” the wrong. May be specific (examples: replevin and ejectment). Enforced by executing the judgment. Entitled to trial by jury.
a.       Courts try to use these first then equitable if legal remedy is inadequate
b.      Equitable relief—Order the D to do or not do something. Often specific, but can be substitutionary. Ordinarily means a court order & contempt for not obeying
a.       Standard for getting this is tougher than a legal remedy
                                                                                                                                     a.      Because there is a greater intrusion on Δ’s liberty
b.      This type allows judge to be more creative than with legal remedies.
c.       Differences
a.       Requirement of inadequate legal remedy (erosion of constitutional right to a jury trial and difficult and cumbersomeness of equitable remedies – require more of the court 
b.      Requirement of irreparable injury for equity remedies
c.       Enforcement
                                                                                                                                     a.      If Equity, enforced by contempt
                                                                                                                                    b.      If Legal, enforced by executing a judgment lien against property and selling it to apply proceeds towards judgment
d.      Jury trial available for legal remedies but not equitable remedies
e.      In Rem or In Personam: equitable requires in personam but legal remedies can be both
d.      Legal vs. Equitable Remedies
a.       Legal Remedies
                                                                                                                                     a.      Compensatory damages
                                                                                                                                    b.      Punitive remedies         
                                                                                                                                     c.      Mandamus
                                                                                                                                    d.      Prohibition
                                                                                                                                    e.      Habeas Corpus
                                                                                                                                      f.      Restitution
b.      Equitable Remedies
                                                                                                                                     a.      Restitution
                                                                                                                                    b.      Injunctions
                                                                                                                                     c.      Specific Performance
                                                                                                                                    d.      Receiverships
                             iv.            Equitable Remedies
                                                             a.      require greater degree of judicial involvement (more supervision by court)
                                                            b.      Imposes greater supervisory burdens on the defendant’s liberty than a monetary award
                                                             c.      Requirements to Use Equitable Remedy
a.       Conscience and equity demand it
b.      Equitable remedies are granted in personam (since court telling someone to do something,

d suffering
b.      Emotional distress
c.       Fear of injury
d.      Humiliation
e.      Inconvenience
f.        Loss of consortium
g.       Loss of enjoyment of life
                                                             g.      Sources of Civil Liability
a.       Torts
b.      Contracts
                               v.            Remedies we will look at
                                                             a.      Tort Damages
                                                            b.      Contract Damages
                                                             c.      Coercive Remedies
a.       Injunctions
a.       Mandatory
b.      Prohibitory or negative
c.       Contempt of court
b.      Specific Performance
c.       Writs of Mandamus
d.      Prohibition
                                                            d.      Restitution
                                                            e.      Punitive Damages
                                                              f.      Declaratory Remedies
a.       Declaratory judgment
b.      Bills to quiet title
c.       Cancellation of instruments
                                                             g.      Ancillary Remedies
II.      Torts Damages, in General
                                i.            Must first prove cause of action before you can start to prove damages are appropriate
                              ii.            Goals
                                                             a.      The goal of the damages remedy is compensation of the plaintiff for legally recognized losses
                                                            b.      Damages is an instrument of corrective justice, an effort to put the plaintiff in his or her rightful position had the wrong not occurred.
                                                             c.      In tort law, the remedial goal is to put the plaintiff in a position that is as if the tort had not occurred
a.       To make the plaintiff whole (usually full compensation, including residual loss in value after repairs that fail to restore full value)
a.       However, want to avoid over-deterrence
b.      General damages
a.       Pain and suffering