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International Criminal Law
Temple University School of Law
Deguzman, Margaret M.

International Criminal Law (deGuzman – Spring 2011)
·         Tadic Case
o    each court has competence to determine its own competence
o    Security council's powers under Art 41 to take measures not involving use of force to maintain and restore peace
·         When under Art 39 there is a
§  Threat to peace
§  Breach of peace
§  Act of aggression
·         Basis of ad hoc tribunals
o    Basis for universal jurisdiction of court
·         Art 17
o    Gravity
o    Unwilling or unable (complementarity)
·         If state is investigating or prosecuting
·         OR state has decided not to prosecute
ICC has no jurisdiction unless
·         State is unwilling or unable to prosecute
o    Unwilling
·   Proceedings undertaken to shield criminals
·   Unjustified delays in proceedings inconsistent with justice
·   Proceedings rare not conducted fairly or independently
o    Unable
·   Due to total or substantial collapse
·   OR unavailability of national judicial system
·         Lubanga – no definitive gravity standard articulated. Rejected lower court's test
·         Katanga – state must be unwilling or unable at the time ICC is deciding admissibility. Referral by state to ICC pretty much counts as unwilling or unable
Universal juridiction
·         Belgian Arrest warrant – universal jurisdiction is only limited to gravest crimes, and it is not prohibited, so it is permitted
Hybrid tribunals
·         Sierra Leone Case – hybrid tribunals were valid and constitutional in Sierra Leona
o    Not part of national system so did not violate it
War Crimes
·         Contextual elements
o    Armed conflict
o    Nexus to the armed conflict
o    International or non international
·         IHL – law of armed conflict
o    Hague law
o    Geneva Law
·         Hague law
o    4 principles
·         Humanity
·         Necessity
·         Distinction
·         Proportionality
o    Distinction
·         Everything feasible
·         In multiple acts, no need to look at every single commander
·         Mens rea of commanders
·         Geneva Law
o    Injurious conduct towards protected person is grave breach
o    Relevant provisions
·         Com Art 2 and 3
·         Protocol 1 and 2
o    If international conflict
·         Full range of Geneva protection applies
·         Protected persons must be in the hands of enemy nationals
o    If non-international conflict
·         Com Art 3 and (maybe) Protocol 2 applies
·         Boskoshi case
o    What is armed conflict
·         Two prong test
§  Intensity
§  Organization
·         5 Factors to find organization
·         Level of organization
·         Enough to engage in protracted violence
·         Less than required for sustained military operations
·         Kayeshima case
o    When is there a war nexus
·         Several standards articulated
§  Delalic – obvious link
§  Tadic – closely related
§  Akayesu – in conjunction with
·         Used ICC commentary standard
§  In the context of and associated with
·         Blaskic case
o    Is it international v. non international
·         Two standards of international intervention, or acting on behalf of foreign state
§  Direct intervention
§  Indirect intervention
·         Control requirement in Geneva III
·         3 tests of control
·         Unorganized individuals – specific instructions, later endorsed
·         State organs – no specific instructions
·         Military/Paramilitary (organized group) – overall control
·         More than just financial or training
·         Must have role in coordinating/planning
·         Nationality
o    If international conflict
o    Nationals must be in hands of enemy for Geneva VI protection
·         Delalic – nationality is based on substance of relationships rather than any formalistic rules.
·         Classification in Geneva convention
o    Common Art 2
·         Applies to war or armed conflict between High Contracting Parties
o    Protocol 1 Art 1
·         Applies to Common Art 2
·         Includes armed conflict where people are fighting against
§  Colonial domination
§  Alien occupation
§  Racist regime
o    Common Art 3
·         Applies to non-international armed conflict in territory of a High Contracting Party
·         This is customary international law
o    Protocol 2 Art 1
·         Applies to Common Art 3
·         Applies to conflicts not covered under Protocol 1
·         Applies to conflicts between High Contracting Party and other organized armed group
§  Not sure if this is cust

AH paragraph)
·         Or any crime within jurisdiction of Court
§  Persecution
·         Intentional and severe deprivation
·         Of fundamental rights
o    Kupreskic case
·         elements
§  Carrying out a prohibited conduct
§  Directed against civilian population
§  Motivated by discriminatory animus
·         Extermination
o    ICC definition
·         Intentional infliction of conditions of life
·         Calculated to bring about destruction of part of a population
o    Krstic
·         Elements
§  Particular population was targeted
§  Members were killed or subjected to conditions calculated to bring about destruction of
§  Numerically significant part of population
·         Distinct from genocide
§  No discriminatory intent
o    ICTR Definition
·         Killing of certain named or described persons
·         Act or omission was unlawful and intentional
·         Part of widespread or systematic attack
·         Against civilian population
·         Elements
o    Act committed with
o    Intent to destroy
o    In whole or part
o    A national, ethnic, racial or religious group
·         Akayesu case
o    What is an ethnic group
·         Group that shares common language or culture
·         Stable group
·         Protected groups
o    Immutability(?)
o    Subjective identification as per perpetrators
o    Spanish courts
·         Broader definition
§  Differentiated human group
§  Characterized by some trait
§  Integrated into larger collection
·         Jelisic case
o    Specific intent
·         Intent to attack AND
·         Intent to participate
·         Intent to destroy group
·         Know acts are part of wider range
·         Targeting leaders
·         Aiding and abetting
§  Intent to cause destruction
·         One man genocide mission