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Immigration Law
SUNY Buffalo Law School
Miller, Teresa A.

I.                   Federal Agencies/Courts
a.      Agency Discretion
                                                              i.      Agency has discretion to make their own rules
1.      Flexibility
2.      expertise
3.      better representation
b.      Agency Organization
                                                              i.      DHS
1.      CIS – four regional centers – review petitions – not allowed to be blended with the enforcement branches
a.       AAU (Administrative Appeals Unit)
                                                                                                                                      i.      visa
b.      Asylum Offices
c.       Field Offices
2.      ICE – try to find you and deport you
a.       Field Offices
3.      CBP – at port of entry to try to stop you from entering
a.       Border control sectors
b.      Port of entry
                                                            ii.      DOJ
1.      EOIR (Executive Office for Immigration Review) – Court system for the immigration
a.       BIA – members are appointed and fired by AG
                                                                                                                                      i.      Removal cases can be appealed here
                                                                                                                                    ii.      Can appeal this board’s decision to a circuit court if there is a con law question or a question of law.
b.      IJ and Chief IJ
                                                                                                                                      i.      Proceedings to remove is conducted by IJ
c.       OCAHO (Office of the Chief Administrative Hearing Officer) – ALJ
                                                          iii.      State Department
1.      now allowed to make visa policies
2.      control foreign offices and hand out visas in foreign countries – Consular Affairs and Consular offices
3.      bureau of population refugees and migration – deal with refugee programs
                                                          iv.      DOL
1.      Labor certification – Board of Alien Labor Certification Appeals (BALCA)
                                                            v.      Department of Health and Human Services
1.      Public health services
c.       Capital Area Immigrants rights Coalition v. U.S. DOJ
                                                              i.      In reviewing the agency’s explanation of action – arbitrary and capricious standard – whether the decision was based on consideration of the relevant factors and whether there has been a clear error of judgment.
d.      Benslimane v. Gonzalez
II.                Admissions: Categories & Inadmissibility
a.      Admission Categories
                                                              i.      Immigrants
1.      Family Sponsored
a.       Immediate Relatives (no quotas) – INA §201(b)
                                                                                                                                      i.      Children of US Citizens – INA §101(b)(1)
1.      unmarried person under twenty-one years of age who is…
2.      Child Status Protection Act – INA §201(f)
a.       How old they are when the sponsor filed the petition
b.      Age on the Date of naturalization of parent
c.       Date of termination of marriage of the child
3.      INA §203(h) – determines if alien is children
a.       On the date the immigration number becomes available reduced by the number of days in the period during which the applicable petition described in Paragraph (2) was pending
                                                                                                                                    ii.      Spouses of U.S. Citizens
1.      Defense of Marriage Act – spouse adopts the definition as used in federal law.
                                                                                                                                  iii.      Parents of US Citizens (if citizen is over 21) – INA §101(b)(2)
b.      Preferences – INA §203(a)
                                                                                                                                      i.      1. Unmarried sons and daughters of citizens
                                                                                                                                    ii.      2. Spouses, children & unmarried sons and daughters of LPRs
                                                                                                                                  iii.      3. Married Sons and Daughters of Citizens
                                                                                                                                  iv.      4. Brothers & Sisters of citizens.
c.       Quota – Overview
                                                                                                                                      i.      The above two categories are lumped together with a 480,000 quota and 226,000 floor
                                                                                                                                    ii.      Visa Bulletin – describes of the status of current status of applications
d.      INA §203(d) – children/spouse are entitled to the same status and same order of consideration. 
                                                                                                                                      i.      Following to join – no need for separate petition
                                                                                                                                    ii.      After Acquired – need separate petition.
2.      Employee Sponsored – INA §203(b)
a.       Priority Workers – quota 40,000
                                                                                                                                      i.      Persons of extraordinary ability (may self-petition)
                                                                                                                                    ii.      Outstanding Professors & Researchers
                                                                                                                                  iii.      Multinational Executives and Managers
b.      Advance Degrees or Exceptional Abilities (Labor Cert. Req’d) – quota 40,000
                                                                                                                                      i.      Professionals holding advanced degrees (National interest waiver §203(b)(2)(B))
                                                                                                                                    ii.      Exceptional Ability in arts, s

Waivers – 216(c)(4)
a.       Extreme Hardship Waiver – Only apply to circumstances occurring during the initial period. Extreme hardship if removed
b.      Good Faith Waiver + marriage terminated but alien spouse not at fault for lack of joint petition
c.       Battering or extreme cruelty + alien not at fault for lack of joint petition
d.      Treatment of Siblings
                                                              i.      Young v. Reno
1.      Once a sibling has been adopted, all natural ties are severed between the parent and the child. Naturally, all ties are severed between the adopted sibling and the natural siblings.
e.       Employment-based immigration
                                                              i.      Employment Categories – §203(b)
                                                            ii.      Procedure for employment-based petitions – §204
                                                          iii.      Labor certification – §212(a)(5)
1.      must get labor cert to show
a.       there are not sufficient workers who are able, willing, qualified and available at the time of the application
b.      the employment of such alien will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of workers in the United States similarly employed
                                                          iv.      Labor Cert Process
1.      Check Schedule A – list of occupations promulgated that periodically we think we don’t have enough of, and can bypass the labor cert. process. 20 CFR §658.5
2.      Make good faith effort to find U.S. worker to fill position under §656.17(e)
a.       Post job listing in SWA job bank
b.      Post position internally in company
c.       Advertise in 2 newspapers §656.17(f)
d.      If there’s already someone in mind – write the job description to ensure no one else will get the job.
e.       Advertisement must match prevailing wage, match wage offered alien, and use job description matching one on ETA Form 9089
3.      Submit ETA-9089 Application to DOL under §656.17(a)
a.       Match job req’s to O*Net unless business necessity [business relationship + essential] §656.17(h)(1)
                                                                                                                                      i.      To establish business necessity under §656.21(b)(2)(i), an employer must demonstrate that the job requirement bear a reasonable relationship to the occupation in the context of the employer’s business and are essential to perform, in a reasonable manner, the job duties as described by the employer
                                                                                                                                    ii.      Two-Prong Test – exception to the O*Net description