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Evidence
Stetson University School of Law
Everhart, Stephen Michael

Evidence Outline 
Spring 2011                          Prof. Everhart

I.                   Intro to Evidence
A.    Direct vs. Circumstantial Evidence
B.     Testimonial vs. Real and Demonstrative Evidence
C.     Exclusion: Even relevant evidence may be excluded if its probative value is substantially outweighed by the danger of
1. Unfair Prejudice,
2. Confusion of the issue,
3. Misleading the jury, Or
4. Considerations of undue delay, waste of time, or needless presentation of cumulative evidence
II.                The Functions of Judge and Jury

III.             Relevance Generally

IV.             Relevant But Inadmissible (Exclusion of UP and other evidence)
A.    Probability Evidence of Guilt in a Criminal Case
B.     Evidence of Excessive Violence
C.     Scientific Evidence
a.       FL – Frye- “ general acceptance in the medical field”
b.      Fed – Daubert – “scientific knowledge”, tested, peer reviewed, potential rate of error – NOT JUST SCIENTIFIC but “TECHNICAL” TOO!
D.    Similar Happenings, Occurrences and Events

V.                Character and Habit Evidence
A.    Character Evidence
a.       Civil Cases
i.      Evidence of character is generally inadmissible
b.      Methods of Proving Character: Reputation, Opinion and Specfic Acts
B.     Character vs Credibility Evidence
C.     Propensity Evidence
a.       Exceptions: Admissible Propensity Evidence
b.      Forms of Admissible Propensity Evidence
D.    Character in Issue
E.     Other Crimes and Bad Acts
a.       In Criminal Cases prosecutor may not introduce evidence of other crimes for propensity use and cannot introduce bad acts that did not lead to conviction.
i.      But may be admitted to substantiate some element of th echarged crime
1.      Signature
2.      Intent
3.      Motive
4.      Identity
F.      Evidence of D’s Good Character
a.       Fed – Opinion and Reputation allowed; Specific Acts not allowed.
b.      FL –
c.       Rebuttal is allowed by the prosecution if the D puts on evidence of good character
i.      Own Witness- to say that the D is bad
ii.      Cross Examination
1.      Prosecution can cross the D’s good character witness. 
a.       Can use Specific Instances of Bad character but must take the W answer as true, provided,
i.      Good faith basis for belief
ii.      The specific act is relevant to the character trait testified to by the witness
G.    Character of Victim
H.    Res Gestae: Completing the Story
I.       Habit Evidence
a.       Generally Allowable to show that he followed this habit on a particular occasion.
b.      Three Factors
i.      Specificity/Frequency
ii.      Regularity
iii.      Unreflective/Semi-Automatic Behavior
c.       Fed- Allows for business and individuals w/ no corroboration.  COMES IN ALWAYS.
d.      FL – Business needs no corroboration ; Inidividua nbeeds corra=oboration and is onbly admitted if it is probative and not otherwise excluded

VI.             Other Exclusions of Relevant Evidence
A.    Similar Happenings
a.       Generally allowed but must prove the happenings had substantial similarity
B.     Subsequent Remedial Measures
a.       Not allowed for-
b.      Allowed for – proving elements other than culpability or negligence
i.      No safer way to handle the situation
ii.      If D claims he did not own or control property
C.     Offers to Compromise
a.       FL – it will be kept out for Civil cases only, Not criminal cases. 
i.      3rd party confession to show bias will always be kept out.
b.      Fed – May be allowed to show bias when it is a 3rd party compromise but can be kept out if there is great risk of confusion
D.    Offers to  Pay Medical Expenses
a.       Only applies to the medical expenses part, NOT to other factual statements.
i.      Fed – Only for hospital or medical
ii.      FFL – broader to include lost wages and damage to property
1.      Civil Case only,
a.       Criminal case it is coming in.
E.     Pleas of Guilty or Nolo Contendere(CAN’T BE USED TO IMPEACH)
a.       OOnly kept out if the plea is withdrawn
b.      Fed –Might apply if the cop is an agent of the prosecuting atty. 
c.       FL – nolo plea is not allowed in. 
i.      Must believe you are able to negotiate the charges.  Unilateral pleas will come in. 
F.      Liability Insurance

VII.          The Examination and Impeachment of Witnesses
A.    Direct Examination
B.     Cross Examination
C.     Intrinsic Impeachment(Fl- must know the person for a long time.  Fed- must have enough knowledge to make an impression of character for tru

     Specialized Knowledge and Expertise: Limits on the Subject Matter of Expert Testimony DAUBERT FRE 702 STANDARD
i.        Factors to determine if the test is “the product of reliable principles and methods”
1.      Whether it has been reliably tested
2.      Whether it has been subjected to peer review/publication
3.      Reasonably low error rate
4.      Are there professional standards controlling its operation
5.      Whether it is generally accepted in the field
6.      Whether it was developed for purposes other than merely to produce evidence for the present litigation
d.      The Bases of Expert Testimony

X.                Hearsay
A.    Introduction to Hearsay
a.       Hearsay Definition – Out of this Court, Statement, By a Declarant, Offered for the truth of the matter Asserted.
B.     Statutory Non-Hearsay
i.        Prior Statements of Witnesses
ii.      Admissions by Party Opponent
1.       
C.     Hearsay Exceptions
a.       Admissions
b.      Availability of Declarant Immaterial
i.        Spontaneous Statement
ii.      Excited Utterance
iii.    Present Sense Impression
iv.    Contemporaneous Utterances (including Stmts Made for Purposes of Medical Diagnosis, about physical or mental condition)
1.      Learned Writings and Commercial Publications
2.      Ancient Documents
3.      Reputation
4.      Vital Statistics, Marriage Certificates
5.      Previous Felony Convictions(if not covered in another part of this outline)
v.      Prior Recollection Recorded
vi.    Business Records
vii.  Public Records and Reports
viii.Other Hearsay Exceptions
c.       Declarant Must be Unavailable*
i.        Former Testimony given in a prior Proceeding
ii.      Dying Declarations
iii.    Statements Against Interest
iv.    Personal or Family History (IE pedigree)
* UNAVIALABLE Means;
1) Privileged against testifying about the subject matter of his out of court
statement
2) Refuses to testify despite a court order
3) He testifies that he cannot remember the statements subject matter
4) Death or physical or mental illness prevents him from testifying
5) He is absent and the proponent of the stmts has been unable to procure
him by reasonable means
D.    Attacking and Supporting the Credibility of the Declarant
E.     Residual Exceptions
F.      Misc. Hearsay Issues