Select Page

Legislative and Administrative Process
Southern Illinois University School of Law
Mekel, Michele L.

Legislative and Administrative Processes
Spring 2009
LAP Outline: In reading cases.  Anytime reading deals w/ statute/ constitutional provision, should ask self: how does the ct analyze, do they use specific tools/ cannons/ rules.
Purpose of course: Show how legal argument can be made.  Gives you ‘tools’ can pull out that will be preferential to your client and how to argue other authority (Const/ Stats/ Regulations)
Laws: rules that govern conduct b/t people/ people & state/ people & corporate entities.  May be proactive/ reactive. Made by all 3 branches. 
1)      Legis: Stat’s (prevent), overs., treat, const, amend. invest. powers, res..   How?  Bill intro’d to comtee, to floor, voted on in prescribed process, then exec signs/vetoes
2)      Jud: CL/op’s/rules of court (how dams awarded).  Fact spec. (vs. statutes: general).
3)      Exec: Admin Ag. follow Reg’s, may also adjudicate, if stat. from legis allows.
Pound: Jud will narrowly apply stat’s don’t like (limit scope) & ignore. 
1)      “Soc. Legis.”: for whole soc., more democ. process of making law. 
2)      Jud thwarts by narrowly interpret. or view as rest. of old law.
a)      Also: declars unconst., and cite cases interp. statute rather than go to stat. itself (heirarch).
CL (private) v. public law (pub. applicable): Programmatic legis: Pat. Act, Civ Rts Act, ADA.
Basic Structure of stats:
Findings/: backgr re: invest’s b4 pulling stat. together.
Purpose: both: show legis. intent/ issues trying to solve (& helps solve novel iss’s)
Defs: critical.  Prohibits: req’ts typ. found @ bottom.  Penalties. 
Process: rt of appl/ eff. date/ window of compliance.  Savings Cls: restrict ct. ability to interpret.
Fam Med Leav Act Notes:
1)      Be prepared to argue different ways to interpret the statute (not just def’s) to serve purposes.
a)      Answer directly from stat. lang. vs. extrapolating what’s binding vs. what’s arguable.
2)      Espec when reading longer stat’s: read whole doc 1st, finding amendments, etc.
3)      How to read/ analyze a statute is what is important. 
4)      Cite specific sections/ subsections.
D.  Forms of Legis. Action:
1)      Defs
a)      bill/ jr: either house, cept rev..  jr (cr) don’t arise jointly; has preamble.  Pres must sign.
b)      cr/sr: ops/idls/purp. of 1/ both houses.  Needn’t present to Pres.  sr effects sending house
c)      Also: SubCs (fact-finding).
2)      Cong. Invest. Powers: Hearings/investigations.  Have subpoena power to compel.
3)      Broad powers, not unlim..  Witnesses keep Const. rts gainst Self-Inc (5th), unreas. search.seizure (4th), 1st Amend (press/speech/religion/association/(expression).
4)      Methods of Compulsion: Subpoena and Contempt (rare): 4 session or statute, to cts (misd).
5)      Eastland: Misc: equit (inj) v. leg. ($) remedies.  P sought quash of SubC’s Subp. 
a)      I: whether USSF was protected from SubC’s subpoena by 1st amend. right to assoc.
i)        Also: W subp was in spch/debate cl. of const. b/c was ‘protected sphre of legis acti.’
b)       R: Const. Art I § 6 cl 1: “for Speech/Debate in eith House, shan’t be ?ned in any Place.”
i)        Test: protected if “in relation” to legis. session. 
c)      A: Effect legis’s purpose.  Shield from suits so can fact-find.  1st Amend (ass.) loses to. to carry out Cong. Const. function.  “Cong. method. not open to jud. veto.”
d)     C: Power to investigate (subpoena) falls w/in “legis. duties,” is in rel to legis. sess.
6)      Limits on ArtI §6: Pol Actn, defame, Pers. Int (brib/ harass), Nat sec info, trade secrets.
a)      Exec. Priv.: Nixon tapes weren’t protected.  But AT&T was: wiretap was (nat sec).
7)      Hutchison: “Golden Fleece” award in Senator’s press release kills H’s funding, he sues.
a)      I: W P defam. H in his press releases.  Sen Prox. claims FrSpch&DbateCl.  (Was invest.)
b)      A: immunities: on floor, comm./subc/commaides/commrpts.  Must be integral part of delib/ communic. process in order to be protected.  Broad interp, not unlimited.
c)      Ct analyzes/considers to reach decision (**we’ll use in statutory arguments**):
i)        Look to what historical purpose and intent of the Constitution is. 
ii)      Rep’d statements from floor aren’t.  The Congressional Record is.  Look at in LSII L
iii)    have safe harbors, but isn’t a blanket rule allowing people to defame others.
d)     Alt’s: floor hearing (w/media); critic w/out defame.; released rpt; pub. spch in CongRec.
e)      Cong. Rep statement on etwork broadcast not protected.  Prox sought to save taxpayers, but had to pay for defense from Hutch and settlement w/ taxpayer dollars.
8)      Bishop: State circ.ct judge issued SubP to senator; argued immune due to MI const.
a)      Issue: whether “legis. session” not defined as only while working in session.  Declined to define as only working sessions when legislature is sitting.
9)      Mraz: Sought blanket tort liab for injuries resulting from adults supplying minors w/ alcohol.  Ct decided to uphold stare decisis (let dec. stand): circ. didn’t change enough
a)      Ct used: Cannon of construction (tool court uses to interpret legis. intent/purpose/ language).  Where the legislature chooses not to amend a statute after a judicial construction (the Charles case), it will be presumed that it has acquiesced in the court’s statement of the legislative intent.
i)        This canon: intent (esp. once ct. made decision).  The court had the last word in that they’re imputing the last word to the legislature.
b)      Ct looked to legis acts (issue was debated in General Assembly multiple case b4 and after Charles, but wasn’t enacted) “The dog didn’t bark.”  Legis had opportunity to investigate pros/cons and specifically opted not to legislate. 
i)        Ct: appropriate body for this law is the legislature.  They’re elected officials put in charge of broad policy implementation (have the resources to research the issue completely).  
Class 3: How a Bill Becomes a Law: Fed 1st: “How Our Laws R Made”: conc. res. created it.
1)      Difference in appearance between different types of bills:
a)      Has Substantive Effect:
i)        HR 222                 : House Resolution (bill), starts in House of reps
ii)      HJRes 222             : Joint Resolution starting in the House of reps
b)      Has Procedural Effect:
i)        HCon.Res 222      : Concurrent resolution starting in the House
ii)      HRes222               : Simple resolution starting in the House
2)      De

of action to serve maj interests. 
4)      types of representation:
a)      formal: auth. to act on other’s behalf, bound by decisions.  Through instit. arrgmt
i)        Redistricting determined in every 10 yr census.
b)      descriptive: Whether rep.s are a mirror of their constituents.  Wrigley female aldrman
c)      symbolic: How constituents perceive reps, confidence constituents get in their reps. 
d)     Substantive: acting responsively in the interest of the represented, to resolve conflict.
i)        trustee: paternalistic
ii)      delegate: represent their will, regardless of rep.s opinion (never 1 or other)
5)      Examples of Direct Democracy
a)      initiative: Proposal of legis measure.  Const.s file petition w/ req’d # signatures. 
b)      referendum: Refers a proposed/ existing law to voters for approval/rejection.
c)      recall: Procedural device that allows voters to discharge and replace a public official
6)      Luker: Initiative repealed by legis.  Is type of legis like any other.  Voters can remove legis.  Ct. lacks juris. over political q’s.
7)      McCormack: Speech or Debate Clause barred agents from excluding congressman from floor.  House doesn’t have authority to exclude duly elected member w/o 2/3 vote described as such (instead of expulsion).
5: Process and research day: Legis. Research Strategies based on HW.  Starts Notes page 9
6: Legislative Committees: TB 134-164, Links to be posted on TWEN (THOMAS,
E.     Introduction and Referral to Committee (cte) 
1)      Cte Functions: a) Guide legis. agenda.  Chair (seniority) controls when bills rffrd.  b) fact finding to deter. whether to initiate legis.. Oversight of Admin Agencies.
2)      Who controls Ctes: If Maj. in House, maj in Cte.  seniority, experience, expertise determine.
a)      Benefit of prior experience: expertise, continuity, perspective Detriment: no new ideas.
b)      IL Gen Assembly Cte: Leadership: merit.  Committee Chair senior. Same in Congress:
i)        maj has (at least) 1 more member, has add’l staff
3)      Most Powerful Committee: Fed: Ways/Means in House (Tax Revenue goes through)
a)      In IL: Appropriations: Reserved for Senior members = pork gets them re-elected.
F.     Committee Consideration
1)      3 types of Fed Committees:  What they are and what they do:
a)      Standing: Permanent.  J on mil / energy/ healthcare.  J rel’td Legis. rfrrd/worked on there.
b)      Select (aka Special): As needed.  Usually for a specific reason (special investigation).
c)      Joint: (Ex: Conf. Committee): Usu. permanent panels.  From both houses.