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Santa Clara University School of Law
Gillingham, CharlesGeorge

1.      Only relevant evid is admissible (FRE 402; CEC § 350)
a.       Relevant evid makes some fact more or less probable (FRE 401; CEC § 210)
                                                   i.      CEC § 201 ONLY – fact must be in dispute (CEC § 210)
b.      Evid includes testimony, writings, material objects, &c. (FRE XXX; CEC § 140)
                                                   i.      Witness testimony must be based on personal knowledge (FRE 602; CEC § 702(a))
                                                 ii.      Photos include stills, video tapes, motion pictures, &c. (FRE 1001(1); CEC § 250)
1.      CEC § 250 treats photos as writings
2.      Photos must be authenticated as a reasonably accurate representation of the subject pictured.
                                                iii.      Writings include handwriting, typewriting, printing, and every other means of recoding communications (FRE 1001(1); CEC § 250)
1.      Writings must be authenticated
a.       Party offering the writing needs to produce evid sufficient to support a finding by the jury that the writing is what its is claimed to be (FRE 901(a); CEC §§ 1400(a), 1401(a))
                                                                                                                           i.      For phone calls, the voice needs to be authenticated
b.      Don’t need the scribe to authenticated (FRE 903; CEC § 1411)
c.       Self Authentication (FRE 902 ONLY)
                                                                                                                           i.      Public documents (FRE 902(1), (2) re US, FRE 902(3) re foreign gov, FRE 902(4))
                                                                                                                         ii.      Official publications of a public authority (FRE 902(5))
                                                                                                                        iii.      Newspapers and periodicals (FRE 902(6))
                                                                                                                       iv.      Signs, tags and labels affixed in the course of business (FRE 902(7))
                                                                                                                         v.      Notarized documents (FRE 902(8))
d.      Other ways to authenticate
                                                                                                                           i.      If document is altered, party offering the original must explain the alteration (CEC § 1402)
                                                                                                                         ii.      Anyone who saw the writing can authenticate it (FRE 901(b)(1); CEC § 1413)
                                                                                                                        iii.      Admission – Party against whom writing is offered as admitted it is authentic (CEC § 1414(a))
                                                                                                                       iv.      Reliance – Party against whom the writing is offered relied on the writing as authentic (CEC § 1414(b))

luminous writings to be used IF original are made available
d.      Copies or other testimony re a writing (2dary evid) is acceptable
                                                                                                                           i.      If the original in not available b/c it
1.      Has been lost/destroyed (FRE 1004(1); CEC § 1523(b)) OR
2.      Can’t be obtained (FRE 1004(2); CEC § 1523(c)) OR
3.      Is in the possession of the opposing party (FRE 1004(3) ONLY)
                                                                                                                         ii.      FRE requires that offering party demonstrate that original is not available
                                                                                                                        iii.      CEC §§ 1521(a-b), 1523 allow 2dary evid BUT judge can exclude IF
1.      A genuine dispute of the terms exists and justice requires the original be excluded (CEC § 1521(a)(1))
2.      Allowing 2dary evid is unfair (CEC § 1521(a)(2))
3.      Proponent has the original and hasn’t made it reasonably available for inspection (CEC § 1522(a))
4.      ALWAYS have a authentication issue re 2dary evid
3.      Rule of Completeness (FRE 106; CEC § 356)
If part of a writing is introduced by one party, the other party can introduce the remainder