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Constitutional Law I
Santa Clara University School of Law
Steinman, Edward H.

I.                   HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:
a.       1760-1774:
                                                             a.      Colonial area: colonies produced raw goods, empire took goods and acquired revenue
                                                            b.      Britain wasn’t very interested in regulating the internal dynamics àAmerican colonies were largely self-governing
                                                             c.      French Indian War: Britain won
                                                            d.      Colonists felt that they should be left alone à British felt that US should pay taxes in response to war
                                                             e.      George III approved search and seizure, stamp act, quartering act, suspended the colonial legislatures
                                                             f.      1773: British East Indian Act: made a monopoly on teaà Boston Tea Party
                                                             a.      Debated rights of Americans under Natural Law
                                                            b.      Debated rights of Parliament to legislate on matters affecting America
                                                             c.      Declaration and Resolves held that colonies had exclusive right to control internal affairs; Britain could regulate external commerce but could not impose taxes
                                                             a.      Appointed George Washington Commander in Chief of the Army
                                                            b.      Wrote King George III asking for justice
                                                             c.      King George III issues Proclamation of Rebellion
                                                             a.      Recommended the establishment of independent governments in the colonies; led to the adoption of state constitutions
                                                            b.      Signed the Declaration of Independence
                                                             a.      Theoretical basis in Lockean Theoryà natural law
                                                            b.      Preamble: inalienable right to exist
                                                             c.      Right to revolution right to acquirement of property
                                                            d.      When the French came to our sideà Netherlands sent a Navyà huge bonus for America
                                                             e.      War ended in 1781
a.       States retained sovereignty
b.      Congress was unicameral each state had one vote; unanimity required for amendment; no power to tax
c.       No executive branch
d.      No judicial branch
e.       No power to regulate interstate commerce
f.       No legislation of power to conduct foreign affairs
g.      Limited power to:
                                                             a.      Declare war and peace
                                                            b.      Adopt treaties
                                                             c.      Appoint ambassadors
                                                            d.      Coin money
                                                             e.      Establish a postal system
                                                             f.      Regulate commerce with the Indians
h.      congress didn’t have the power to ask states for money
i.        Anti-federalists—Jefferson wanted responsive LOCAL government, no strong executive, afraid of Washington turning into George III.
j.        Federalists—Madison/Washington: need bigger government to avoid fighting among factions
                                                             a.      How do you accommodate state sovereignty with national government
-state sovereignty
-unicameral legislature
-no executive branch
-no judicial branch
-no power to tax
-no power to regulate interstate commerce
-supremacy clause
-house and senate
-judicial branch
-power to tax
-power to regulate interstate commerce
III.             CONSTITUTION:
a.       Ideas:
                                                             a.      sets up the government that is designed to promote a novel notion of dual sovereignties
                                                            b.      Founding fathers consciously were creating a very defined and limited goernment
b.      ARTICLE 1:
                                                             a.      § 1 Bicameral Legislature
                                                            b.      § 2 House of Representatives
1.      Assume: 1 representative per 10,000 people
a.       100,000 white people
b.      50,000 slaves
2.      If slaves are not counted at all, States get 10 representatives
3.      If slaves are counted as 3/5, States gets 13 representatives, disproportionately high representation for slave states
a.       Washington and Madison were against the idea of slavesà felt that it went against the ideals of the revolution
b.      deal with the devil: provisions protecting slavery
                                                                                                                                i.      Art. I § 2: Representation and taxation based on member of free persons and 3/5 of all other persons
                                                                                                                              ii.      Art. I § 9: Importation of slaves cannot be prohibited by Congress before 1808, but a tax may be imposed on importation
                                                                                                                            iii.      Art. IV § 3: Fugitive slaves must be returned to their masters
                                                                                                                            iv.      the more slaves that the southerners importedà the more representation they would have had
                                                             c.      § 3 Senate
                                                            d.      § 8 Enumerated Powers
1.      Power to tax
2.      Power to regulate interstate and foreign commerce
3.      Power to establish a judiciary
4.      Necessary and proper clause
                                                             e.      § 9 Restrictions of federal legislatures:
1.      Helped maintained slavery
2.      Importation of sla

                           c.      2nd Amendment: To allow a well-regulated militia, the people have the right to keep and bear arms
                                                            d.      3rd Amendment: In peace time, no soldier shall be quartered in any house w/o owner’s consent; in war time quartering shall be prescribed by law
                                                             e.      4th Amendment: Search and seizure; warrants
                                                             f.      5th Amendment: Grand jury; double jeopardy; self incrimination; due process; just compensation
                                                            g.      6th Amendment: Speedy trial; jury trial in the district where the crime was committed; confront witnesses; right to counsel
                                                            h.      7th Amendment: Right to jury trial in suits under the common law where the controversy exceeds $20; common law procedures required
                                                              i.      8th Amendment: Excessive bail; excessive fines; cruel and unusual punishment
                                                              j.      9th Amendment: The enumeration of rights in the Constitution does not deny or disparage others retained by the people
                                                            k.      10th Amendment: Powers not delegated to the United States, nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the States or the people.
IV.             JUDICIAL REVIEW:
a.       Marbury v. Madison:
                                                             a.      Historical background: Federalists at the close of the 1800’s were swept out of office. On the eve of Jefferson’s inauguration, Adam’s granted several judgeships in attempt to pack the judicial branch. Jefferson had the commissions destroyed.
                                                            b.      Holding: Supreme Court has the power to review legislation and strike it down if it is unconstitutional Congress lacks the power to expand Supreme Court’s original jurisdiction
1.      court can order the Executive to act, to enforce the law/ perform his duties
2.      Established Supreme Court’s authority over itself and the Executive/Legislative branches of the government
                                                             c.      Issues:
1.      Does Marbury have a right to his judicial commission?
a.       Yes. The moment the seal is placed on the commission he had a right to do it.
                                                                                                                                i.      Jefferson felt that delivery was the moment of establishment.
b.      Marshall was the exact one to make the commissions in the first place