New York Practice Ekpo Fall 2014
The Civil Practice Law and Rules (“CPLR”) governs civil practice in every court in the state of New York.
Some lower level courts have their own Court Acts that prescribes the courts subject matter jurisdiction of each court and regulations that govern practice.
Example: New York City Civil Court (New York City Civil Court Act, governs civil court for New York City); Nassau and Suffolk County District Courts (Uniform District Court Act – these are the only two counties that have district courts); All City Courts (Uniform City Court Act, governing civil practice in all 61 city courts outside New York City); Town and Village Courts (Uniform Justice Court Act, governing civil practice in all of the town and village courts of the state).
CPLR § 101: But the only time the CPLR will not govern is where there is a specific rule/Statute in a Court Act that directly conflicts with the CPLR. In that instance, the Statute will rule
Rule 103 – last two digits (03) = article 1 (to know what article u are working with, drop off last two digits of rule number)
CPLR § 103: One Form of Civil Judicial Proceedings
(a) Does away with the distinction between courts of equity and law in NY. (There is no distinction between law and equity, only one form of civil action.)
This is a key difference between NY and NJ, which has a Chancery (equity) and Law Division.
(b) Action vs. Special Proceeding;
An Action is what you think of as a civil lawsuit.
A “Special Proceeding” is a subset of actions that short-circuit the litigation process/summary action
. E.g., no discovery in special proceedings, π (called petitioner) commences the action by briefing an issue (normally pure questions of law) as soon as the petition is filed, Δ (called “respondent”) opposes and the court rules. All Article 78 motions are special proceedings.
** THE GENERAL RULE is that all judicial proceedings shall be prosecuted in the form of an action, except where the law specifically authorizes a special proceeding.
CPLR § 104: Liberal Construction
Requires that the CPLR and its rules be “liberally construed to secure the just, speedy and inexpensive determination of every civil action.”
It’s supposed to mean that the CPLR and the rules therein are not designed to be an end unto themselves, but merely a means of getting to an end.
However, if you know procedure better than your opponent, you will win more cases than “justice” would otherwise direct.
CPLR § 2004: Extensions of Time
Where a time limit is placed on a particular act, a court can change the time limit UNLESS a statute says that a court cannot, like a prescribed statute of limitation.
Things like filings, etc. can be extended, but the statute of limitations rule says that no court may extend it.
The rule says a court may extend time “upon such terms as may be just and upon good cause shown.”
If an adversary asks for more time, you should agree b/c you want the favor extended to you too.
II. Subject Matter Jurisdiction
· Subject Matter Jurisdiction (“SMJ”) concerns whether a court is allowed to consider a topic – the outer limits of a court’s authority to hear a particular case or controversy.
o In NY, SMJ is conferred either by (a) statute (Court Acts) or (b) by the state constitution.
o Parties cannot stipulate to expand it. Nor can a court rule expand its own SMJ.
· SMJ can be raised at any time, whether before an initial verdict, or for the first time on appeal.
· SMJ cannot be waived.
· Article 2 of each of these court acts sets apart SMJ of each court (kinds of cases each of these courts can hear)
B. Court Structure and Subject Matter Jurisdiction
· LIKELY EXAM QUESTION (#1): There are two types of courts in New York: (1) limited jurisdiction; and (2) general jurisdiction.
o A court of GENERAL JURISDICTION can hear any type of case, with very limited exceptions.
§ It has all the subject matter jurisdiction that it is permitted to have. It is pretty close to unlimited. Jurisdiction in these courts is presumed.
§ In NY, the Supreme Court is the ONLY court of general jurisdiction.
o A court of LIMITED JURISDICTION is vested w/ less than the full jurisdiction it is permitted to have. The jurisdiction of these courts, if challenged, must be specifically demonstrated (it must be shown that the claim is within the provision conferring jurisdiction).
§ Example: federal district courts are courts of limited jurisdiction. There is no federal court of general jurisdiction. In NY, eg, City Civil Courts can only hear claims of limited monetary value; Family Ct; Ct. of Appeals; Appellate Div; etc. (see below).
ii. Court Structure & SMJ
· HIGHEST COURT OF ANY OTHER COURT. (TEN OF YOU ARE GOING TO SAY LEGISLATURE) ONLY COURT OF GENERAL JURIDICTION, SUPREME COURT OF NY.
o IT CAN HEAR ANY TYPE OF LAWSUIT WITH ANY TYPE OF MONEY.
o IT CAN’T HEAR ANY LAWSUITS BROUGHT AGAINST THE STATE OF NY (COURT OF CLAIMS) & WHERE CONGRESS HAS EXPRESSED EXCLUSIVE JURIDICTION IN FEDERAL COURT à PATENTS, BANKRUPTCY, ORISSA, MARITIME)
o THE MINIMUM AMOUNT AT ISSUE FOR THE SC TO HAVE SMJ? 0, ANY. ANY AMOUNT OF MONEY.
o THE SECOND OF THE TWO EXCEPTIONS MUST INCLUDE WORD EXCLUSIVE
a) Highest Court – Court of Appeals
· The Court of Appeals can only decide issues of law (no factual questions).
o Two exceptions:
§ (1) Appeal from criminal judgment where the death penalty is imposed (appeal goes right to Court of Appeals and facts can be considered; AND
§ (2) Appeal from an appellate decision that reversed or modified a trial court decision, finding new facts b/c trial court erred.
· LIKELY EXAM QUESTION (#2) The Court of Appeals is the only court in NY that is permitted to issue Advisory Opinions (where there is no case or controversy).
o This occurs only When a question of New York Law is presented to the Court of Appeals by:
§ (1) The highest court of another state; OR
§ (2) By any federal appellate court (which includes any federal court of appeals or the U.S. Supreme Court)
b) Intermediate Court – Appellate Division
· All appeals by the Supreme Court go to one of four appellate division judicial departments
o 1st Judicial Dept.: covers Manhattan and the Bronx.
o 2nd Judicial Dept.: covers Staten Island, Queens, Brooklyn, Long Island, and some Westchester Counties.
o 3rd Judicial Dept: covers Eastern New York.
o 4th Judicial Dept.: covers Western NY.
· Possible Exam Question (#3) – Decisions by Appellate Division Judicial Departments are binding on the trial courts within each respective department.
o Example: NY County not bound by 4th Judicial Dept. Decisions. Decisions by outside judicial depts. are, however, persuasive authority.
· Appellate Division jurisdiction is primarily appellate EXCEPT for the limited situation where it has original jurisdiction over admission and supervision of attorneys. The court hears appeals from the supreme court, county courts, family court, the court of claims, and appellate terms of the supreme court.
· Appellate Division courts review issues of law and fact.
c) Trial Court – The Supreme Court (an appellate CT)
· The Supreme Court is the only court of general jurisdiction in the state of NY (Possible Exam Question)
· There are two broad categories of original jurisdiction that the Supreme Court lacks:
o (1) Where the U.S. Congress has conferred exclusive jurisdiction to federal courts (e.g., patent claims, ERISA actions, etc.); AND
o (2) Claims br
· Monetary jurisdiction limited to $15,000 (money & replevin claims).
· Appeals go to county court unless Appellate Term is established
Town & Village Courts: Local level courts in respective counties.
^Town Court known as “justice of the peace” and village court as “village police justice”
· Monetary jurisdiction up to $3,000.
· Criminal jurisdiction of misdemeanors or below.
· Appeals to County Court.
C. Transfer Between Courts
i. Mistake in Choice of Court
· If a case is brought in the “wrong court” (ie, a court that lacks subject matter jurisdiction) it need not be dismissed.
§ Instead it should be transferred to the court that does have jurisdiction.
· CPLR § 325(a): If a mistake was made in the choice of court, the Supreme Court, may, upon motion, remove the case to the proper court;
§ As an alternative, the incorrect court can sua sponte transfer the case up to the right court. (Example: Complaint for $50k filed in NYC Civil Court).
· Transfer Up for More Relief – CPLR § 325(b): When an action is brought in a court that does have jurisdiction, but the plaintiff now wants more or different relief than the court can grant (eg, if π learns that the case is worth more $), this § 325(b) allows π to make a transfer motion to the correct court (where transfer is sought) (ie, the next highest court locally available).
o Whether the court allows the transfer is entirely discretionary, taking into account how well π justifies the greater relief and the excuses for delay in obtaining the evidence that supports it.
· Transfer Down on Consent – CPLR § 325(c): When the action is brought in the correct court, but π later determines that the need for damages is less and the case can fit into the jurisdiction of a lower court, a motion may be made in the court in which the action is pending to (1) amend the complaint (to lower damages to amount w/in jurisdiction of lower court) AND (2) for transfer down to appropriate court.
o Why would π ever do this? Speedy results.
o If Δ has counter-claimed, π must obtain consent of Δ in order to transfer down. If the lower court would not have personal jurisdiction over Δ, then transfer is precluded.
o This rarely happens voluntarily, but often judges will deny a case a general preference (meaning it gets put on the back burner – never gets put in queue when the case is ready to go) until π motions to transfer down. It’s like a death knell to the case.
· Transfer Down Without Consent – CPLR § 325(d): Givens a judge an option shy of the draconian denial of a general preference. The court in which an action is pending may, in its discretion, remove such action to a lower court without consent of the party if it “appears that the case should have been brought in the lower court.”
o The lower court must have personal jurisdiction over the defendant.
o However, the lower court’s monetary jurisdiction may be exceeded if transferred down.
§ ****This is the only circumstance in which a lower court can enter judgment beyond its jurisdiction – it may enter judgment up to the demand in the complaint**** (Possible Exam Question)
· Thus, this procedure does not prejudice the plaintiff – the lower court can grant an amount up to the complaint.