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John Marshall Law School, Chicago
Bode, Dawn

TORT= wrongdoing which by law are grounds for a lawsuit.  Wrong which results in harm
·     Defendant: committed the tort, caused harm or took risk of harm
·     Plaintiff:  tort was committed against, person harmed
·     Compensation: pay for the harm done
·     Injunction: order defendant to stop committing the tort
·     Punitive: designed to punish
·     Motion to dismiss
·     Motion of summary judgment
·     Objections to evidence
·     Motion for directed verdict
·     Objections to Proposed instructions
·     The motion N.O.V. (a post trial motion for judgment as a matter of law)
·     Motion for a new trial
Basis of Tort Liability
o     Intentional conduct
o     Negligent conduct which results in unreasonable risk
o     Conduct that subjects the actor to strict liability
I. Intentional Torts (FiTTEd CAB)
            -False Imprisonment, Trespass to land, Trespass to chattels, Emotional distress,      Conversion, Assault, Battery
Definition :
            – A person’s desire that certain consequences result from his actions or knowledge that those results are substantially certain to occur as a result of his actions.
            – D knows with substantial certainty that a particular effect occurs as their action,             they are deemed to have intended the result
Transferred Intent – intent is transferred
            1. intend to commit a tort against one person and harm another
            2. intend one tort and commit another
            -only applies to (F.I, T.L, B, A, T.C)
            – For an intentional tort an act must be a voluntary muscular movement
                        -ex: cannot be an intentional tort if you are sleeping or having a seizure
            – Being a minor does not exclude one from being liable for an intentional tort, as  long as they desired the consequence
                        – For other torts minority rule is 7
A. Battery
Definition: an act intending to cause a harmful or offensive contact or apprehension and the act contact results
Elements (CAHIL)
            1. Act – That D committed a voluntary act
            2. Intent – D either:
                        (a) – Intended to cause a harmful or offensive contact
                        (b) – Intended to cause P to have apprehension of such harmful or                                      offensive contact
            3. Harmful or Offensive contact – that a harmful or offensive contact with P’s       person actually resulted
                        (a) – Offensive – contact offends a reasonable sense of personal dignity
                        (b) – Harmful – causes pain or bodily damage
            Person – includes those things intimately associated with him
                        -ex: hitting a horse you are on is considered ones person
            4. Causation – That D’s act in some sense caused the harmful or offensive contact
            5. Lack of Consent – that P did not consent to the contact
Intent: It is not necessary that D desire to physically harm P
            1) D intended to cause a harmful or offensive contact
                        -Intends to hit (harmful)
                        -Intends to spit (offensive)
            2) D intended to cause imminent apprehension on P’s part                                                   of harmful or offensive bodily contact
                        -Intended to miss but apprehend
            3) Transferred Intent
                        -Tortfeasor intends a tort on one person but                                                                           commits one on another
            C9. Hall – Kid at home was being shot at so he shot back at the shooters. A bullet            struck a nearby neighbor. Since he intended harm on the shooters the intent            transfers to him causing harm to the neighbor and is liable for battery.
Harmful or offensive contact:
            1) Harmful: causes pain or bodily damage of the person
                        -ex: – Hitting someone
            2) Offensive: damaging to a reasonable sense of dignity
                        -ex: – Spitting on someone
            Must be reasonable
                        -ex: spitting is reasonably offensive
                        -ex: touching someone who doesn’t like to be touched is not reasonable
                        C5. Snyder – nurse was messing up in surgery and Dr. forced her head                               into the cavity of the body this was not harmful but was offensive.
                        C7. Leichtman – anti smoke activist had cigar smoke purposely blown in                            his face this is offensive contact. Smoke particles
Awareness: It is not necessary that P have actual awareness of the contact at the time it occurs
            -ex: Kissing someone while they are a

          – A threat of forces can be restraint
            – ex: if you leave this house I’ll kill you
False Arrest – wrongful confinement under color of legal authority
            -requires P to prove:
            1. That D asserted the legal authority to detain P
            2. That P believed that D had the authority
            3. That P submitted to D’s authority against his will
            4. That D in fact lacked legal authority
Shopkeepers privilege
            -allows a merchant who reasonably believes that a person is stealing to detain that person for a reasonable time to investigate whether the theft actually exists
            -cannot bully or assault
            -cannot threaten arrest rather than investigate
            -can hold until police come
If one is lawful then restrained then false imprisonment exists
            -ex: being brought in for something you didn’t do then being beligerant and being                         detained
            -compensation for:
                        -loss of time
                        -physical discomfort
                        -physical illness
                        -mental suffering/humiliation
D. Trespass to Land   
Defintion: can occur when the defendant enters the plaintiff’s land, or causes another person or an object to enter the plaintiff’s land
Elements (PiPIA)
            1. Act – That D committed a voluntary act
            2. physical Invasion – That D physically invaded P’s exclusive possessory interest in real property without P’s consent
            3. Intent – That D intended invasion
                        -merely have intended to come into contact with the land
                        -intent to act not intent to trespass
            4. Possession – That P had the immediate right to possession of the land
Does not require proof of damagesExtended liability
            -liable for actual not just intended