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Criminal Law
Charleston School of Law
Lawton, Margaret M.

Criminal Law
Dean Lawton
Fall 2010
I.                    Punishment
A.    When to Punish
B.      What is a Crime
                                                            1.      Acts against society’s interests
                                                            2.      Victimless crime—Victim = society
                                                            3.      Person is “Morally Condemned”
C.    Common Law
                                                            1.      Must be crime at time of bh: “prohibition against retroactive criminal lawmaking”
                                                            2.      Understandable to reasonable law abiding citizens—conviction under unclear statute denies due process
                                                            3.      Rule of Lenity
a.     MPC does not use Rule of Lenity—resolutions in favor of the code and the provision at issue
D.    Theories of Punishment
                                                            1.      Utilitarian (looks foreward to societal benefit)
a.     Deterrence
·         Specific—deter offender
·         General—deter others
b.     Rehabilitation
·         Communicative Retributivism—robbing someone’s rights showing they are worth less (See p 6)
                                                            2.      Retributive (looks back)
a.     Isolation
b.     Education
c.     Retribution
II.                  Basics of Criminal Prosecution (Federal Court)      
A.  Investigation à Arrest
B.  Charge
                                                            1.      Grand jury hears EVD privately—P asking for indictment
                                                            2.      IndictmentàPlea bargain
                   à or Trial
C.  Trial 
                                                            1.      Usually Jury
                                                            2.      Bench Trial
a.     Misdemeanors
b.     Punishable < 6 mo D.  Jury Instruction E.  Presumptions                                                                       1.      Common Law Mandatory Presumptions—if instructed by judge                                                             2.      Rebuttable Presumption a.     Unless the opposing party can prove otherwise b.     Shifts burden of persuasion to D c.     Unconstitutional for an element of the crime to be a presumption                                                             3.      Not recognized by MPC F.  Motion for Judgment of Acquittal                                                             1.      Similar to Summary Judgment                                                             2.      Only available to D—can NOT give directed verdict of Guilty G.  Sentencing                                                             1.      Determining the Sentence                                                             2.      Sentencing Process                                                             3.      Role of Lawyer       

tate v. Donaldson
                                                            2.      Plain Meaning
a.     “Judicial Assumption”—bc cts have interpreted a word this way in the past and continue to interpret it this way—this is what was meant by legislators
b.     ex—legislators know that “felonious taking” includes asportation
                                                            3.      Legislative Intent
                                                            4.      Legislative History
a.     In absence—can use common law as interpretive tool
                                                            5.      Cannons of Statutory Interpretation
a.     Ejusdum Generis
·         When general language follows specific terms
·         Limits the general language to the specific terms…
·         Only items of the same type as those listed
·         For example, where “cars, motor bikes, motor powered vehicles” are mentioned, the word “vehicles” would be interpreted in a limited sense (therefore vehicles cannot be interpreted as including airplanes)
b.     State v. Kahalewai
c.     Statutory Title
d.     Expressio unius est exclusio alterius
·         Expression of one excludes the others
e.     Rule of Lenity